Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17. He originally wanted to study law, he eventually changed his major and started studying Medicine. He studied philosophy, physiology, and zoology, He graduated in 1881 and in the beginning of 1882 he started work at Vienna General Hospital were he studied the cerebral anatomy. He studied aphasia which led to first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, which would go on to be published in 1891. Freud eventually resigned from his position he held in the hospital and started studying nervous disorders.
Lombroso at this time felt he then had to support his family; enrolling in college and becoming a doctor at a young age. He focused on biological traits as they linked to crime. He studied at the universities of Padua, Vienna, and Paris, and was later (1862-1876) a professor of psychiatry at the University of Pavia and of forensic medicine and hygiene (1876), psychiatry (1896) and criminal anthropology (1906) at the University of Turin. He was also the director of a mental asylum in Pesaro, Italy (Sabbatini). In 1876 the Italian Physician and Professor of Medicine, studied expired criminals.
This important publication of 1909 was the first case study in which clinical material, derived directly from the treatment of a child, was presented as evidence in support of Sigmund Freud's theories of infantile sexuality. The somewhat unorthodox treatment was carried out by the child's father under the "supervision," mainly by way of letters, of Freud himself. This case study played a significant role for Freud in consolidating his new theories concerning infantile sexuality. While his major findings about the existence of the Oedipus and castration complexes, and the sexual life and theories of children, had originally been derived from the analysis of adults, the case of "Little Hans" (as it has come to be called in the psychoanalytic literature) provided the independent "proof" Freud needed, using clinical material obtained from a child. The case of Little Hans delivered compelling clinical examples which confirmed many of the theoretical statements made in the Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, which Freud had published in 1905, and which were, at that time, regarded as scandalous.
Historical development to the present day . The people influential in its development Dr Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987) and American Psychologist was the founder of Person Centred Counselling back in the 1950’s born in Oak Park Illinois. Rogers attended Teachers College at Columbia University where he engaged in child study. In 1930 Rogers served for the society for the prevention of cruelty to children in Rochester; where he went on to write The Clinical treatment of the problem child (1939), which was based on his experience in working with children. With the years’ experience of working with troubled children, Rogers was influenced in constructing his client-centred approach by the post-freudian psychotherapeutic practice of Otto Rank.
After four years of college, his father convinced Black to take up something better than arts, so he decided upon medicine. While at Glasgow, he became influenced by the chemistry teacher, William Cullen. Different from all the other young students, he conducted chemical experiments in his professor’s laboratory. He ended up not graduating at Glasgow because he was more attracted to the University of Edinburgh, a more prestigious school. In order to graduate, the students had to prepare a thesis.
Freud was born in the Czech Republic on 6th May 1856, his parents were practicing Jews and were very religious, but as Freud grew up he himself, even though being a Jew never practised. In 1873 he began to study medicine in Vienna, and once graduating he worked at the Vienna General Hospital. Freud began with treating hysteria by means of hypnosis, but he abandoned hypnosis to develop his own technique of psychoanalysis. Freud developed many theories, those include looking at the interpretation of dreams, he looked at the Id, ego and super ego which develop at different stages in life. I will now go on to explain these in more detail: The Id drives in one direction only and is the real driving force behind some ones behaviour, the components of their personality it is the unconscious part of our psyche.
In 1866 he was appointed visiting lecturer atPavia, and later took charge of the insane asylum at Pesaro in 1871. He became professor of forensic medicine and hygiene at Turin in 1878, where he was later professor of psychiatry (1896) and criminal anthropology (1906]. He died in Turin in 1909) Cesare Lombroso holds a prominent position in the modem chronology. In fact he is considered to be the “father of modern criminology” (Mannheim, 1972: 232), During the 19th century his work gained attention as he integrated the concepts of atavism and “throwback” of criminals to an earlier stage in human evolution (Schaefer, 1969: 126). His work emphasizes on the different categories and types of criminals such as born criminals, criminaloids, and insane criminals, as well as research on female offenders.
Similarly, Erving Goffman (1968) claimed that doctors, social workers and psychiatrists will engage in spurious interaction with those labelled thus suggesting society labels deviant behaviour. The Rosenhan study (1973) supports the idea that the labelling theory exists because abnormal behaviour that doesn’t conform to the norms and values of society is labelled. The Rosenhan experiment was a famous experiment done in order to determine the validity of psychiatric diagnosis, conducted by psychologist David Rosenhan. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between people who are sane and those who are insane. The first part of the study involved eight sane people (pseudo-patients).
Outline and evaluate four approaches in Psychology A psychology laboratory was first set up in Germany in 1879, by a medicine and philosophy professional known as Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920). Wundt was especially recognised for his research in the use of introspection and is referred to as the founding father of psychology. There are different views from psychologists these days, as to what makes each of us function. Numerous different types of approaches and perspectives exist within psychology to study this; the four main approaches looked at here are Psychodynamic, Behavioural, Humanistic and Cognitive. Sigmund Freud, creator of the Psychodynamic approach, brought about this theory in the 1890s.
His many theories were based on case studies of his patients and from deep self analysis over a period of fifty years. He died in 1937 (Sanders, 2011). According to Chrysalis (2010) his most important contribution to psychology is the concept of the ‘dynamic unconscious’ meaning that the unconscious mind of a human plays a very important role in how they behave. He developed many theories and the practice of psychoanalysis; one of the twentieth century’s most influential schools of psychology. He also made fundamental contributions to philosophy and Lear (2005) names Freud as one of the greatest theorists of human nature, engaging in deep issues and problems such as human sexuality, the unconscious, dreams and theories of transference.