An important factor in his artistic development was the Kristiania Bohème, a circle of writers and artists in Kristiania, (as Oslo was then called). Its members believed in free love and generally opposed bourgeois narrow-mindedness. One of the older painters in the circle, Christian Krohg, gave Munch both instruction and encouragement. Munch soon outgrew the naturalist aesthetic in Kristiania, partly as a result of his assimilation of French Impressionism after a trip to Paris in 1889 and his contact from about 1890 with the work of the Post-Impressionist painters Paul Gauguin and Toulouse-Lautrec. In some of his paintings from this period he adopted the Impressionists’ open brushstrokes, but Gauguin’s use of the bounding line was closer to his thoughts, as was the artist's ambition to go beyond the depiction of external nature and give form to an inner vision of the soul.
Taylor considers the various approaches and interpretations for the painting in her article, from the pre-iconographic description of O’Connor to the psycho-analytical by Naifeh and Smith, whilst also offering her own lucid comment, ‘If Pollock injected “willed confusions” into Stenographic Figure, he did so ingeniously, leaving generations of viewers uncertain about its specific subject matter and content.’ Langhorne again tries to ‘explain’ the various motifs in the painting through Jungian analysis ; ‘Thus the numerical formula 66=42 can be seen as yet another statement of Pollock’s desire for a union of opposites’ , something Rubin attributes to ‘compositional needs’. Taylor chooses the middle ground here and concentrates on a more literal explanation of the painting through its title: (remember tello obelisk analysis and redistribution of iconographic themes between Rothko and Pollack) the painting is of a stenographer and the symbols on the painting are the result of the recording of shorthand. However the validity of this could be called in question once one realizes the painting was originally called just that, Painting , although it was
Courbet’s The Stonebreakers (1849) and Millet’s The Gleaners (1857) are both paintings during the Realism era of France. Both share the key ingredient, peasants as subject matter. Both painters wanted to show a French class, never shown before. Paintings like this would be looked down upon at the Salon, yet this is what people needed to see, and wanted to buy. Author and critic C.J.
The term Romanticism had been created by German literary critics who have been eager to define this new literary and cultural movement clearly different from Neoclassicism (Required reading). When it comes to fine arts, Romanticism is quite difficult to define. Romantic artists employed a wide range of styles and approaches in their work and can be only linked together by their individualism and rejection of strict academic standards. Hence, Grand Odalisque
On his return he became a member of the academy, but he had previously contributed to the exhibitions of 1746 and following years, and he continued to exhibit, with rare exceptions, down to the date of his death, which took place in his lodgings in the Louvre on the 3rd of December 1789. Amongst the very numerous engravers of his works may be specially cited Le Bas, Cochin, Basan, Duret, Flipart and Le Veau in France, and in England Vivares. For my analysis paper I have chosen the artist Claude-Joseph Vernet and his painting “A Calm at a Mediterranean port”. In the painting we can see what looks like a sun set scene of a port; we can already see a large amount of shaded colors. At the same time I also see a dark and light contrast as the composition is compose of many shaded objects.
Louis, Missouri in 1903 (Szarkowski 2012). At the age of 23, he was sent to Paris to study French literature, which undoubtedly left an imprint on his oeuvre. Some critics indeed claim that Evans learned how to treat vernacular subjects with classical aesthetic ideals from Baudelaire’s poetry, and the Flaubert’s mot juste that teaches to keep only relevant details to the story in a work of art (Epstein 2000). The photographer had an eye for detail and drama that create eternal literature; however, he did not feel comfortable in the world of words and thus chose to dive into the new medium of photography, where Evans could apply the aesthetic principles he had learned in
Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Walter Scott and the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on color and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modeled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic.
Ingres – a recognized nineteenth century artist – created Grand Odalisque in 1814. His painting contains some of the prominent features of the so-called Romantic art characterized by the presence of emotion, expressive palette and expressionistic painting techniques along with some approaches typical for the author. Thus, Romanticism is the cultural movement of 1750-1850, which has influenced literature, music and fine arts. The founders of Romanticism rejected some of the traditional academic approaches and sought complete freedom of expression in their artwork. They have been mainly concerned with expressing such ideas as adventure, romantic love, freedom of self-expression, human freedom and individualism.
After the First World War, Europe finds a need to return to core values and reincorporate past ideologies. It is not just a move away from modernism, it is a way of finding national identity. Surrealism is important to study for its relationship to Dada. It is a cultural movement and artistic style that is founded by André Breton who writes the First Manifesto of Surrealism. Artists like Magritte, Dalí, and Ernst display their ideas that are based on Freud’s studies of psychoanalytic analysis.