Examples of her decisions: Choosing to support Spain’s enemy (the Dutch Rebels) which essentially sets a declaration of war. She was also more reluctant to execute Mary of Scotland in fear of the neighbouring French, rather than Spain, as Mary of Scots was French. Elizabeth’s refusal to reign in people such as Francis Drake, perhaps due to not wanting to be seen as backing down (weak). She also gained financially from such
Which estate hated them the most? Paragraph #1: Social Argument: Propaganda against the Monarchy One of Louis and Marie-Antoinette main goals was to keep the monarchy going. Louis XIV noticed that the monarchy was in danger when he was described very negatively in the papers and also, when his wife, Marie-Antoinette was described very harshly. She was drawn as harpy, an evil, ferocious monster. Of course, that Louis XIV and Marie-Antoinette understood that the people of France didn’t like them but they didn’t want to believe in it.
Catherine of Aragon played a vital role in delaying the annulment from Henry VIII. Her links to Charles V, her defence and her delaying strategy ultimately prolonged the annulment from Henry. However, we also must into account other factors such as the Sacking of Rome in 1527 where the pope himself was taken prisoner. Also, Henry’s timing of the annulment and his very poor strategy meant Henry was delaying the annulment himself due to this poor strategy. Firstly, Catherine of Aragon played a vital role in delaying the annulment from Henry because her links to Charles meant that Charles himself could intervene with the annulment.
Do you agree with the view that the main reason for Henry’s failure to obtain the annulment of his marriage in the years 1525-29 was the determined opposition of Catherine of Aragon? There were many factors contributing to Henry’s annulment plans failing. On one hand it was said to be Catherine of Aragon’s determination and persistence to prove her marriage valid. Others say it was Henry’s own weak argument and brutish front that caused his plans to fail. Source 4 states it was Henry’s weak case and argument that caused him to fail to obtain his annulment, ‘Wolsey worried about Henry’s reliance on biblical arguments’.
This created a problem for Henry because during that time having a female line of succession as seen as being weak and having a Queen as head of the state was seen as a recipe for disaster based upon previous events that had happened within England (civil war under Queen Matilda).By marrying Anne Boleyn in 1533 Henry gave himself a chance of gaining a son that he needed in order to secure his dynasty and fulfil one of the roles he was given in being a king which was to enable the success of his lineage once his reign had come to an end. By not having a male heir to the throne it may have made the position of England in terms of what the future held a bleak one, an England without an male heir may make it an easy target in the future for its enemies such as Catholic France, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire because they could portray the issue as one of having a chance to invade successfully amidst a succession crisis. With Henry’s divorce from Catherine Aragon paving the way so that he could marry Anne Boleyn he had to change the shape of religion within England forever, he cut ties with the Catholics church and
England for a long time had been told to hate Catholics and when James came from Scotland and became king he decided to marry Henrietta Maria, a Catholic, the people became unhappy because they did not know if their heir would be Protestant or Catholic. In 1625 England became involved in expensive foreign wars - with the Austrian Empire then in 1627 a war against France. This meant that Charles was very short of money and so he forced rich people to lend it to him. In 1628 Charles asked Parliament to let him raise custom duties on wines and many other goods. The MPs were not happy with the forced loans and foreign wars so they presented Charles with the Petition of Rights which was just parliament saying that Charles cannot raise custom duties without parliaments permission.
Wolsey was raised as a Catholic and supported the concept of marriage however, the main reason he was able to stay in power for so long was his flexibility to meet the kings wishes whatever they were. A divorce was very hard to obtain even for the king of England as it went against the religious nature of the country and so Wolsey knew he would have to find a loophole or old scripture that allowed Henry to be divorced from Catherine if he wanted to please Henry and stay in power. Wolsey tried to say that Edward had not consummated his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and so it was not valid, however this is most likely untrue and so this did not work. The Sack of Rome was used to put pressure on the Pope to grant the divorce as it kept the Pope as a virtual prisoner inside of Italy however this also failed. Wolsey’s final attempt to secure the divorce was through Henry’s own court however, this was not recognised by Catherine and she went to the Pope who refused to grant the divorce.
By 1527 Henry VIII had decided to divorce Catherine of Aragon, leading to the Reformation and the greatest crisis of his reign. Historians disagree on Henry’s fundamental desire for a divorce, the trigger for the reformation, and thus the multiple factors of the actual reformation are even more disputed. Due to the fraught political situation in Europe, which resulted in Charles V isolating and controlling the Pope, Henry was unable to gain the divorce through the Catholic Church and so was forced to consider other means by 1529. Attempting to pressurise the Pope through Parliament and by sentencing Cardinal Wolsey, his representative, to death, Henry was still unable to achieve the desired effect and thus began his attack on the Church. He reduced clerical privileges and, by charging the clergy with Praemunire, he undermined their power as representatives of the Pope in order to strengthen his own.
One of this war's causes was the nearly tacit public opinion, as well as the Parliament's, that they should support the Protestants due to Elizabeth (James's daughter) and Frederick - both involved in the war. The people and monarchy started to disagree, resulting into a loss of balance in the whole land. Catholics also earned themselves a bad image due to the gunpowder plot, once again creating a scarce relationship between them and the Protestants. However, it's common logic that the situation would be conflictual, as two forms of Christianity were impossible to coexist. As it was nearly impossible for James to neglect the conflicts, he attempted to marry his son Henry to a Spanish princess (dynastic marriage), the scope being to bring Protestants and Catholics at peace.
In my final paper, I plan to prove that the root of Hamlet’s problems is the patriarchal society he lives in. I believe that Hamlet’s hesitation is a result of his reluctance to participate in the patriarchal order. He is torn by his need to honor his father and take his rightful place in that society and his disdain for that very system. I will use the Characters of Ophelia and Gertrude, not as evidence of Shakespeare’s misogyny, but as deliberate devices that illustrate the consequences of patriarchy. Should he comply with the patriarchal order, he must either oppose his mother and take the throne, or dishonor his father by accepting his uncle as his mother’s husband.