The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism. The fear of Charles becoming absolutist shaped how his policies were viewed and the MP’s political attitudes. Appello Ceasarum produced by Montagu and commissioned by the King angered many MPs as it argued the similarities between Protestantism and Catholicism. This brought MPs to call for the impeachment of Montagu as they felt it promoted anti-Calvinism. Charles’ reaction to this, as he imposed his prerogative as the Divine Right Monarch, promoted Montagu to Royal Chaplain.
Henry’s unusual toleration of the Huguenots caused trouble for the native Catholics in France and angered Pope Clement but this toleration would somewhat prevail in the Edict of Nantes because of what the nation and the two factions suffered prior to its creation. The Edict of Nantes not only granted successions to both sides but they were far fairer to the Huguenots including the granting of their civil rights, the rights that they lost in the Edict of Boulogne. The Edict of Boulogne was a slap in the face for the Huguenots as it segregated them from modern society, permitting them to only preach in the towns of La Rochelle, Mountauban and Nimes and even with that, only in their own homes. No
In 1625 Buckingham decided England needed a new ally in Europe in France after the failure of the Spanish match, they could see diplomatic advantages, France was becoming worried about the successes of the Hapsburg Spanish and might be persuaded to take part against them. This however made Puritan minded MPs suspicious of Charles as not only was Henrietta Maria, the King’s prospective wife, Catholic, but also the terms of marriage included toleration for Catholics – something Parliament would certainly not welcome, rather it resented the Crown’s decision to do this. The Alliance with France however, had broken down by 1627 leading England into war. Buckingham was to blame because it was his flawed policy of creating an alliance with the French under terms not possible to keep such as toleration for Catholics, which caused the French Chief Minister to decide not to join the English in a war against the Hapsburgs, because of which Buckingham reversed his policy of French alliance. Furthermore to gain popularity Buckingham decided to help the Huguenots who were held at the port of La Rochelle – again this was another flawed move as now England was at war with two countries.
The origins of rebellion arose when people in England opposed Mary’s catholic standing and were worrying over the possible return of papal authority over England, since mary’s coronation was in 1553 she quickly placed people of catholic standing in positions within the kingdom, including many positions in the privy council the most influential body within the government. This quick changeover within England is arguably what caused the Wyatt rebellion as it made the people feel anxious of the possible threat of going back to a papal authority, this can be reinforced by the following source ‘and yet thhe it be said in counsel as to my friend, we mind only the restitution of God’s word, but no words!’qhich was written by wyatts son showing us that Wyatt was rebelling to the threat Mary posed to religion, but it can also be inferred that although this was his motive he felt that this reason wasn’t acceptable to cause a greater enough rebellion to remove Mary from the throne so he says that they should use a different reason, as generally it can be argued that Mary’s catholic influence across England were relatively popular, possibly why the rebellion was shown little support. There
Thus, political brutality was called for. It was also certainly expected by Mary's chief foreign ally, Spain, who made it clear that the Jane Grey threat had to be dealt with if the Spanish-English alliance was to be maintained. So, Mary's domestic peace and foreign policy all depended on her taking a harsh line with Protestant political opponents. Also, in the 16th century, it was a monarch's duty to care for their subjects' spiritual souls. So, for an especially devout Roman Catholic - like Mary - it seemed only appropriate that she continue in the tradition of the Middle Ages and savagely punish those whose lives were setting a dangerous religious example (i.e.
This did pose a problem for the growth of nationalism as the Northern states looked to Prussian for support, as she was the protestant superpower amongst the German states. The southern states on the other hand looked to Austria, due to her religious alliegience being Catholic. This mutual religion among the northern states caused them to support Prussia, and vice versa in the southern states with Austria. Thus, it was more than just religion that divided the German states. The tension and rivalry that existed between the two largest German states made worse the existing religious divisions and made the possibility of unification more problematic.
Cromwell hoped that the marriage to the German princess would secure support against the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor, and strengthen the bonds of Protestantism. Despite the marriage not working it was clear that Cromwell’s influence was a bad decision on Henry VIII’s behalf look manipulated as he put his trust into Cromwell. Cromwell showed to be more in control with legal issues for example his last office of Lord Great Chamberlain, gave him control over the whole household-above-stairs, Chamber and Privy Chamber, this clearly means that Henry had a lack in control, however his lack in control could of been down to his ill
* Sharpe acknowledged that the grounds for war were flimsy. * ‘Charles’ sense of wounded honour had initiated the conflict’ with Spain and England had merely ‘drifted’ into was with France, ‘not least as a consequence of the Duke of Buckingham’s personal quarrels with Cardinal Richelieu’. * With this being the case, why should Parliament be blamed for failing to maintain such wars arising from personal resentment? * Reeve’s “Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule” is, unlike Sharpe’s work, critical of Charles. * Having been forced into peace, Charles was inclined to stay at peace because of any resumption of wat would require a resemption of Parliament to pay for it.
James was trying to juggle different religious demands. This caused James to expresses his hostility against the Catholics in 1604 at the Hampton Court Conference. This was to satisfy the Puritans whose demand who could not satisfy and shows that the religious divisions were serious, as he had to hop to one faction to another trying to keep the country satisfied. The situation deteriorated further when in February James expelled all priests and Jesuits and reintroduced recusancy as well as announcing his ‘utter
Many people in the court was surprised that Henry had sustained his relationship with Anne for so long as he was well known for keeping short relations with his female companions. This suggests that his feeling for her were of true love. Others however say that there was no male heir in succession. Henry had few options he could let Mary take the throne which could lead to a civil war as it had done with the last queen to inherited the throne, he could have married Mary off and hoped she produced a heir before his death, or his illegitimate son ‘Duke of Richmond’ could take the throne, however this would be have been unpopular with nobility and could result in someone else with illegitimate claim to the throne. England was an unstable country in this period in history and a civil war would have left it valuable to attacks and invasions.