Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a Soviet Victory?

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Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a Soviet Victory? In 1962 the USSR began constructing nuclear missile bases in Cuban territory, this has been described by many historians as the closest the Cold War came to nuclear conflict and although it was resolved peacefully it still had a major impact upon the development of the Cold War. Much debate has been held as to whether the Cuban missile crisis can be described as a Soviet victory as Fidel Castro, a stalwart soviet ally, remains in power to this day. This essay will evaluate the claim of soviet victory by looking at the aims of both superpowers with regards to Cuba, the events themselves and how the crisis was resolved and by looking at the consequences for both the USSR and America. Following the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961, Fidel Castro sought even more support from the USSR to prevent any further attempts to overthrow him. This security came in the form of Soviet nuclear missiles. From an orthodox point of view this has been viewed as an act of aggression by the USSR as it brought Soviet missiles in range of continental America, however from a revisionist perspective this can be seen as a reaction to the USA's deployment of nuclear weapons throughout Europe, particularly of Jupiter missile installations based in Turkey1. Soviet aims in Cuba were defined as bridging the missile gap between the USA and USSR, defending socialism were it was threatened and to use the missiles as a bargaining tool in international politics2. On October 15th 1962 American U-2 planes obtained photographic evidence of Soviet medium range missiles on Cuban territory. President John F Kennedy convened a meeting with several members of the National Security Council and a few other officers, this group would become known as Ex-comm. It was this committee that advised President Kennedy during the
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