Those who oppose cognitivists are called non cognitivists and they believe that when someone makes a moral statement they are not describing the world, but they are merely expressing their feelings and opinions, they believe that moral statements are not objective therefore they cannot be verified as true or false. In this essay I will be discussing the multiple branches of cognitive theories and non cognitive theories in order to answer the Janus-like question whether or not moral statements truly hold objective meaning. Ethical naturalism is just one branch of a cognitive theory in which naturalists believe that ethical statements are the same as non-ethical ones, meaning they are all factual and can
Simpler questions would be “Is Dr. Smith’s intentional practise of omitting important information relevant to his client’s treatment ethical?” or “Is Dr. Smith’s failure to report his client’s actions to the authorities morally justifiable?” Both would be good questions, but I believe the question the study guide asks us to consider embrace both of these questions. The possible answers to the question are “yes” or “no”. I will be using rule-based utilitarianism and Kantian deontology to analyse this case study. There is not enough information to consider act-based utilitarianism: Act-based utilitarianism essentially says that one should perform that act which will bring about the greatest amount of good (“happiness”) over bad for everyone affected by the act. Each situation and each person must be assessed on their own merits (Thiroux, 2004, p. 42).
I would like to ask if Mr X suffering from depression? As a therapist it would be unethical for me to treat a patient who suffers depression. In this instance I would suggest to Mr X as politely and as tactfully as possible that he seek help or advice from his account GP before seeking any further assistance from me. This is obviously assuming that as an ethical and professional therapist I have taken a medical history and have asked for information regarding any medication Mr X is taking and also any additional or alternative treatment he is receiving and have taken it all into. As a novice therapist I am not allowed to treat a client who is suffering from depression and I would try to refer Mr X to a more experienced professional.
(Yalom 1980) Existential therapy operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individual's perception and fear of the very process of existing and of the inevitability of death . The existential therapist will not attempt to provide answers to clients but rather to allow them to accept the way things are, It is about accepting all given situations, good or bad, for what they are and just letting it be. It does not suggest change, but aims to allow the client to accept what is. Cognitive behavioural therapy or CBT is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve problems concerning negative emotions and behaviours through a goal-focused, systematic procedures, tasks and discussions. It is about change.
Knowledge of ethnic differences alone does not help counselors be more effective. The knowledge must be turned in to actual tactics. If a counselor takes the over simplified information that minority groups prefer a more directive approach to counseling and puts that in to practice, they will be ultimately ineffective as a counselor because that is not what counseling is all about. Changing counseling practice to match the merely presumed needs of a group of clients should not mean abandoning good counseling work. When a counselor is too directive in attempt to fulfill the needs of the minority groups in such a way as to become more assertive and directive, they are watering down the principles of good counseling and will be ineffective because the client will not gain the ability to resolve their own
He cannot fathom that there would be a disconnect. It is this same reasoning that compels him to investigate Martha Corey after Giles talks about her reading. Hale simply cannot see something wrong in an investigation as he believes it is being conducted by flatly religious people. Hale changes in that he is forced to understand that there might be a disconnect in the psyche of individuals. The most spiritual of people might not be the ones that are considered to be so and the ones who are considered to be so might not be.
What do the ACA and AACC Code of Ethics say regarding dual relationships? What is your response to this? The AACC Code of Ethics (2005), states that “ while in therapy or when counseling relations are imminent, or for an appropriate time after termination of counseling, Christian counselors do not engage in dual relations with counselees.” The ACA Code of Ethics (2005), also states that dual relationships can be harmful to the client, unless the counselor can prove that the relationship can be beneficial to the client. I agree that there are some clients that can benefit from a change in relationship role with the counselor, however I also believe that it is imperative that the client be aware and informed of all the changes that will have to take place because of the change. There may be times when years down the road a client may need to come back or need professional services again and the counselor will have to decline because of their new relationship.
(Corey, 2009, p. 273) Albert Ellis Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) differs from early therapies because it doesn’t dig into the past but concentrates on the present here and now. According to An Introduction to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, by Dr. Greg Mulhauser, “Although emphasizing the same 'core conditions' as person-centered counseling -- namely, empathy, unconditional positive regard, and counselor genuineness -- in the counseling relationship, REBT views these conditions as neither necessary nor sufficient for therapeutic change to occur.” (22 April 2008) REBT is closely related to cognitive therapy and is viewed by many as a subset of it. The key spokesperson for Cognitive Therapy (CT) is Aaron Beck. CT shares with REBT the active directed time limited present centered structure approached uses to treat various disorders such as depression, anxiety and phobias. During the treatment of CT clients’ there is a collaborative effort between the client and therapist.
This includes any verbal, written, telephonic, audio or video recorded information. Both ethical codes assert that the counselor and the clients should agree and set the limits of confidentiality. The counselors are also not permitted to share clients’ confidential information among themselves unless the client has given his or her consent. Both ethical codes also provide that records of the counseling proceedings should be kept in a secure location where they will not get into the wrong hands. One major contrast in the area of confidence is that; while the ACA ethical codes allow the counselor to immediately disclose client’s information on the issue of a subpoena, AACC ethical codes on the other hand provide that the counselor shall not disclose the information immediately but shall first give the client an opportunity to consult with his or her
Esiah Stone 1. The Fundamental Attribution Error says that, “we tend to overestimate the role of our own personal factors and to over look the impact of situations.” (DeNeui, D. 2009, class lecture.) This helps us to explain the difference in the prediction versus what actually happened by overlooking the danger at hand and carrying out the task at hand by negating what is at stake. In a nut shell, the difference is how people would predict the obvious answer that he/she would never knowingly harm another person, so how could he/she go all the way, but when a person is “ordered” to do something they will blindly does it. 2.