Superson’s goal is to defeat the skeptic and does not believe self-interest is sufficient enough to do so. I understand the approach Superson is making about self-interest but I don’t think she is looking at all aspects of the topic. I think people will always act in self-interested ways regardless of the circumstances; people act according to their dispositions, not by force, unless they are being coerced of course. It is human nature to instinctively maximize our personal utility. We act in ways that we see fit, whether or not an act is considered moral is completely dependent upon the individual.
If a patient needs treatment but they are not covered, that may motivate a counselor to place an incorrect billing code on an invoice to get paid for an non-covered service. While the counselor may believe this to be the best thing for the client, it is not ethically or legally allowed. This behavior actually hurts the industry as more regulation will be placed upon the counselor who will have to take more time to prove their compliance. That time they are using to prove compliance is time they are not seeing clients or generating revenue. One aspect of counseling that is very helpful is the licensure that is granted to counselors by the state.
We promote goodness and happiness using nature and experience, we can work out thus, that murder, for example, is wrong because committing murder does not cause happiness. Ergo, Ethical Naturalism produces universal laws which can be used as a benchmark to measure our own and other people’s moral conduct. Meta-ethics on the other hand believes that no ethical language is universal and objective. Non-naturalists and non-cognitivists such as Cambridge philosopher G. E. Moore believe that ethical language is subjective, as by claiming that they are objective is committing the ‘naturalistic fallacy’. This states that it is a mistake to define ‘good’ in terms of things that exist (natural properties) that we already
And when a psychologist denies a patient access to these notes, the denial isn't subject to a review process, as it is with other records. HIPAA affords psychotherapy notes more protection--most notably from third-party payers--than they'd been given in the past. Under HIPAA, disclosure of psychotherapy notes requires more than just generalized consent; it requires patient authorization--or specific permission--to release this sensitive information (APA.org, 2010). Privileged communication is a legal doctrine (also known as therapist-patient privilege) that declares client-counselor therapeutic communications are to be kept private by the counselor (Tribbensee & Claiborn, 2003). Privilege is not an ethical term.
Utilitarianism is the ethical theory for all times, when faced with a moral dilemma, utilitarianism identifies the appropriate considerations, but offers no realistic way to gather the necessary information to make the required calculations. Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question what ought a man to do? It is guidance for government and personal action is based upon the maximization of the good; by government for those within the society, and by individuals. Utilitarian considerations play an important role in emotion regulation. Although the application of utilitarian principles may strengthen majority rule, unfettered democracy can lead to tyranny.
The fear of losing agency is not an adequate reason to reject epiphenomenalism. Rather, the fact that so much of how humans behave seems to be attributed to their beliefs or desires, the emergence of psychology in explaining behaviour, and the lack of universal laws of causation, all contribute to undermine the strength of epiphenomenalism as a theory to explain the mind-body relationship. Beliefs and desires seem to be the reason why humans act in a certain way in certain situations. This type of behaviour is regarded as psychological and relates to an individual’s mind and behaviour. Psychologists, try to study an individual’s mind to determine the causes of their behaviour’s.
Ethical Decision-Making Paper Abstract Counselors are often faced with situations which require sound ethical decision making ability. One dilemma that counselors face is the limits of confidentiality. Those who go for counseling assume that whatever they tell a counselor will be kept confidential and not shared with anyone outside of the counselor-client relationship. Competent counselors will honor their commitment to the laws and standards governing confidentiality, but there are limitations. When the clients right to confidentiality and the safety of human life clash, confidentiality cannot be maintained.
Off the Precipice into the Gorge: Why Utilitarianism Can’t Save Us Introduction In his article, “A Critique of Utilitarianism” Bernard Williams is concerned that consequentialism has found plausibility in people’s minds due to a misunderstanding of and negative reaction to non-consequentialist theories.  Though he does not offer an alternative ethical theory, Williams successfully takes on the project of exploring how utilitarianism and those who uncritically embrace it have accepted an unworkable standard for defining right actions. Williams offers a unique and penetrating thesis: to define right action only by reference to whether it produces a good “state of affairs” necessitates a fundamental clash between an agent’s moral character and that allegedly right action.  In its attempt to compensate and maintain viability as a moral theory, utilitarianism smuggles into its calculus the agent’s non-utilitarian-based moral feelings. For a conscientious observer, this double standard should seriously cause him to question the ability of a consequentialist perspective to prescribe satisfactory moral understanding and guidance.
It focus less in any particular instance and instead ruminate what a decision to tell a lie or not tell a lie said about one's character and moral behavior. As such, lying would be made in a case-by-case basis that would be based on factors such as personal benefit, group benefit, and intentions. Virtue-based ethical theory is not actually in conflict with deontology or teleology: those two viewpoints deal with which actions a person should take in any given scenario, whereas virtue theorists simply argue that developing morally desirable virtues for their own sake will help aid moral actions when such decisions need to be made. Aristotle categorized the virtues as moral and intellectual. Aristotle identified some intellectual virtues, the most important of which was wisdom; Sophia (theoretical wisdom) and phronesis (practical wisdom).
The Ethical Lens Inventory also implies that my blind spot is that I believe that motive justifies method. It says that I may unintentionally cause people upset and pain because I am so focused on my good motive, and that I tend to believe that ethnics is a set of universal rules that everyone should follow, just as I do. I believe that my strengths are that I will always perform my duties to satisfy the goal of my employer on my own and without supervision. I’m not dependent on a team or group. I feel my weaknesses would be that I may come across to others as bossy and everyone will be held