To label someone is to attach a meaning or definition to them. Studies show that teachers often attach labels to pupils regardless of their ability or attitude, but instead based on stereotyped assumptions about their class background, labelling working-class pupils negatively and middle-class pupils positively. Howard Becker carried out an important study on labelling and found that teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the ‘ideal pupil’. We can see how the process of labelling can affect pupils by looking at Aaron Cicourel and Johm Kitsuse’s study of educational councillors. The study found that the counsellor judged pupils largely on their social class; this therefore put them at a disadvantage as middle-class students were placed on higher level courses.
Payne stated that students should learn the “hidden rules” of the middle class from their educators so that they have another set of rules to use if they choose to do so. Impoverished students, compared to students of middle or upper class, often have a lack of proper funding, thus, a lack of appropriate resources to use in their education. Due to this, they are often unprepared for school, not having the money to purchase books and other educational tools. Both authors realize this, but argue that the responsibility lies on different shoulders. Payne states that impoverished students face inequality at school, insinuating that the school should be responsible for helping to provide for these students so that they can have a better education.
By contrast, many sociologists have found that the reason the effect of labelling is so great is due to the self-fulfilling prophecy this sociological explanation was examined by Ball he found that pupils who that pupils of similar ability were placed in different streams. Those with fathers who performed manual labour were more likely to be found in lower streams. He observed that most pupils were conformist and eager when they first entered the school, but gradually the behaviour of the children began to diverge. He allies with Keddie she came to the conclusion that from an interactionist point of view, pupils experience school in different ways. They are treated differently by their teachers, given
The movie explores the relationship amongst high school students who are socially separated, are forced together and find that they had more in common than they initially thought. The symbolic interaction theory supports this result saying, “Education emerges depending on the character of social interaction between groups in schools [and] schools are sites where social interaction between groups influences changes for individual and group success” (Margaret L. Anderson, 2008). Before the movie begins there is a quote from musician David Bowie saying, “..and these children that you spit on as they try to change their worlds are immune to your consultations. They are quite aware of what they’re going through…” (Changes, 1972). The song expresses how people are aware of society’s views, so people try to change what society thinks of them and when they are trying to change they ultimately ignore what society thinks.
With the purpose of the surveys for the Shelby County School students discussing how each student feels about their past, present and future learning experience(s), as well as how the students feel they could grasp an overall greater education if the correct adjustments were made. As for questions pertaining to the SCS research, students will be asked to cooperate regarding how they feel when in school. Are the students treated as equal individuals, do they believe the teachers and faculty are properly trained. An alternate and a null hypothesis will pertain to the SCS graduation rate declination and how it can be properly administered. The alternate hypothesis: A difference in graduation rates can be seen for those at risk seniors if students participate in intensive study programs.
Changes in the teaching of the new math curricula versus the basic teachings are getting better for some student coming up learning math especially in the K-3 school. Another Phi Delta Kappan article called “Parrot Math (Criticism of Why do teachers want to use their strategies instead of learning new ideas their student come up with? The subject of the matter comes up as teachers can also learn from student as well. While a teacher teaches one way which might be long-term for a student, the student might find a different short-term way to solve their problem or equation. This is the kind of mathematics that most parents and government officials recognize as the curricula that they attempted to learn when they were in school.
Sociologists have developed many different factors that are responsible for these ethnical differences, which can be either “internal” (inside the educational system) or “external” (outside the educational system). I am going to analyse the internal factors, such as labelling, institutional racism and the ethnocentric curriculum. One internal factor is labelling. To label something, is to attaching a meaning, or apply a stereotype. Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity.
Assess the importance of school factors such as racism and pupils’ responses to racism in creating ethnic differences in education Racism in school is clearly an important factor in the differences in educational achievement between ethnic groups. Students are often labelled subconsciously by teachers according to their ethnic group, for example Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found that most teachers are quicker to discipline black pupils than other for the same behaviour. They argue this is a result of ‘racialised expectations’ – the idea that teachers expect black pupils to present more discipline problems and misinterpret their behaviour as threatening or a challenge to authority. Foster (1990) found that teacher stereotyping and racism often led black pupils being placed in lower sets, resulting in lower levels of achievement and differences between ethnic groups. Asian pupils were found to also be the victims of racism in school, especially girls as Wright found (1992), saying that teachers leave Asian children out of classroom discussions and speak to them in childish language, isolating them from the other children and making them feel uncomfortable in school.
These factors include, labelling, streaming and the self fulfilling prophecy and pupil subcultures. Studies have shown that teachers often attach labels regardless of the pupil’s actual ability or attitude. Instead, they label pupils on the basis of stereotyped assumptions – working class are labelled negatively and middle class are labelled positively. This puts the working class pupils at a disadvantage as they are labelled. However, not only just the pupils are labelled, the knowledge they are taught can also be labelled.
Your conclusion is that small class size indeed causes better grades. Wrong, because there is a fundamental problem with this conclusion; you did not account for 'intervening variables'! Could there be an intervening variable that is effecting this relationship between class size and student performance? Actually there can be many factors which are influencing this relationship. How about the influence of the teacher?