Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups or classes called 'streams'. Each ability group is taught separately from the other for all subjects. Howard Becker (1971) carried out a study and found that teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the 'ideal pupil, he found that teachers do not usually see working class children fit in that criteria, they were often labelled as non-academic and ‘difficult’ they tend to see them
Black pupils felt that teachers underestimated them and picked on them. Gillborn and Youdell conclude that much of the conflict between white teachers and black pupils stems from racial stereotypes which the teachers hold rather than the pupil’s behaviour. Thus, it creates ethnic differences in education achievement as if the teachers do this then it makes the students less motivated to work which may be the reason why black ethnic minority groups might do worst in education. On the other hand, some sociologists would argue and say that the external factors are the important factors which cause ethnic differences in achievement. The Swann report (1985) found that some minorities
Working class children are less likely to succeed because they are less likely to be found in nursery schools, less likely to go to university and more likely to be poor readers when they start school, more likely to be in lower sets and streams in secondary school, more likely to leave school early, more likely to underachieve at GCSEs and a level, more likely to be excluded and suspended .This is because the middle-class culture children are adequately prepared for school, but it's totally reverse for working-class culture, it basically fails to prepare children adequately for educational success. It is often said that intellectual development is vital in the younger years of a child life, this refers to a child's ability to solve problems and apply concepts and ideas. Bernstein and Young argue that Middle-class families will be able to afford toys that stimulate the mind, books and pre educational essentials, whereas the working class may struggle to buy such equipment, and therefore have a disadvantage compared to the Middle-class family. Language is also associated with a child's progress. Early socialisation is what gives children this manor of speech and Bernstein argues it makes children feel at home, in a school surrounding and allows children to express themselves clearly and efficiently.
Nothing is more academically degrading than social promotion. According to the experts quoted in the prompt, the advancement of intellectually inadequate students has become a general custom for the greater good of the child’s self-esteem. Social promotion is unethical and should be applied appropriately. This kind of social promotion has caused many students to struggle with the enhanced work that they are given. Their inability to comprehend can possibly lead to stress and frustration thus developing behavioural issues.
In combination with each other the person starts to resent school at the earliest point. This resentment also hinders the continuation of further education. This comes full circle to the lower class standard of living for generations to come. Next is commitment, this can be described as the level of commitment that an
If they are labelled as being ‘stupid’ early on in their career then they will be placed in the lower sets and streams. This means that they will not have access to the full range of courses available to them and this an effect their A level or degree choices. Sociologists would also agree by explaining that anti school subcultures may occur. These are groups of students who feel that they have been failed by education and stop trying or
I find it rather scary, something that makes you truly think on it, as well as a little sad at the same time. The basic functions were written to involve everything from giving the children boring material, make the children all be alike one another as opposed to being individuals, determine what a students' role in society is, keeping them level grounded as opposed to going higher in life to be their best, selection of the better ones and humiliate the weaker with bad grades and the like, and even so much as having "chosen ones" that will excel to learn management and leadership skills, unlike the others, and rein over the oppressed
Then, it means the teacher treats the pupil accordingly acting as if the predications are already true. The pupils internalise the teacher’s expectations of their self-concept so that they actually become the kind of pupil that the teacher believed them to be when labelling. If the teacher believes that a pupil will fail, they more than likely will fail because they have been labelled to be a ‘failure’. Although, this is not always the case, some people will also be labelled like a failure but they will try and prove the teachers wrong and will try their hardest to pass
Cultural deprivation is the theory that many working class and black children are inadequately socialised and therefore lack the “right” culture needed for educational needs. There are two factors to this; internal and external. The internal factors consist of factors within education such as pupils, teachers and inequality between schools. The external factors are outside the education system. There are three main aspects to cultural deprivation.
Based on the recent ubiquity of standardized tests, it is clear that schools have promoted the former more than the latter. This push for conformity has been detrimental to students, who have suffered because of the lack of outlets to develop and express their individuality and creativity. Conformity in and of itself is not harmful to students. In fact, if applied correctly, it can be very helpful to their development. Some conformity — things like basic rules and an organized classroom — is helpful to students because it creates an environment conducive to