Trends of the Periodic Table of Elements

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Trends of the Periodic Table of Elements Introduction The objective of this experiment was to establish trends in the Periodic Table of Elements, involving the characteristics of elements in the same group and/or period. In Part 1, the melting point trends of metals in Group 1, Period 3, Period 4, Period 5, and Period 6 were observed, using the Web Elements website (, and then were graphed (by each Group or Period individually) to display the trends. Trends were observed in all graphs, and the melting points were related to multiple variables, such as electron configurations, nuclear charge, shielding, atomic radii, and cohesion energies. In Part 2, Group two nitrates were mixed with different solutions, and were observed for indications of chemical reactions (precipitate formation and solubility) that formed periodic trends. In Part 3, six specific metals were reacted, in individual test tubes, with hydrochloric acid and a variety of different metal ion solutions, in order to find if a reaction of metal displacement happened. The observations noted formed a trend of increasing reactivity among the six metals. Experimental In Part 1 of the experiment, the Web Elements website was used to make 5 scatter plot graphs that showed the melting points at certain atomic numbers, from the information provided by the periodicity of melting points section of the website. In the graphs, the melting point (in degrees Kelvin, K) was plotted along the y-axis, and the atomic number along the x-axis; all graphs were Melting Point vs. Atomic Number graphs. Graph 1 contained Group 1 elements: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr. Graph 2 contained Period 3 elements: Na, Mg, and Al. Graph 3 contained Period 4 elements: K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. Graph 4 contained Period 5 elements: Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, and Cd.
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