Why do Keynesian economists believe market forces do not automatically adjust for unemployment and inflation? What is their solution for stabilizing economic fluctuations? Why do they believe changes in government spending affect the economy differently than changes in income taxes? Keynes theorized that when unemployment raises the amount of goods that are in demand by countries citizens decreases and as these demands decrease the amount of output by the countries manufactures also decreases. As the demand for one product decreases it can cause a chain reaction lowering the demand for products needed to produce the first product.
Total revenue equals price time’s quantity. It reflects total receipts obtained from selling a certain output or quantity of goods. Total costs is different it’s equal to fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs include building and equipment costs, regulatory fees and salaried personnel and remain stable, especially in the short term, but may vary with a longer time horizon. As the time horizon increases, variable costs rely less on existing factors and restrictions and therefore will begin behaving differently which will in turn affect the cost of production (Wright, 2007).
A result of tariffs on imported goods was that the exporting country would retaliate by imposing tariffs on imports. This would lead to a game of “one-upmanship”, with tariffs inching ever-higher, eventually leading to either a drastic reduction, or even cessation of trade. This choking of international trade eventually depressed world demand, and led to the Great Depression of the 1930s (Hill, 2009, p. 11). After World War II, the leading industrial nations decided to reduce or eliminate restrictions to free trade. One outcome of this effort was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades (GATT).
Economic costs of inflation- Inflations economic costs would include damage to competitiveness as high inflation could cause spiralling price multiplier effect; as prices go up workers would demand higher wages so increasing business costs and another round of price rises to maintain business profits- making exports for expensive, thus reducing the demand for them causing a decrease and AD domestically. Additionally this may lead to unemployment as more costs to the firm i.e. menu costs. Change in inflation could also cause uncertainty to consumers/businesses to spend and invest as they don’t know what the future holds, this can decrease confidence in the market and potentially, in the longer term, cause and reduction in AD. Economic costs of deflation- deflation has proved to have several economic costs, the main cost is that it encourages differed expenditure where people’s expectations change and they delay spending in the hope of getting a better deal.
Use the data and your economic knowledge, assesses the likely impact of substantial cuts in public expenditure on the performance of the UK economy Some economist argue that the performance of the UK economy depends on the level of aggregate demand within the economy, aggregate demand is defined as the demand for all goods and services in an economy, the components which make up aggregate demand are consumer spending (C), capital investments (I), government spending (G), exports (X) and imports (M), and the formula for this is AD = C+I+G+(X-M). Price Level AS Cuts in public expenditure are likely to involve the losses in jobs, as stated in extract B it would reduce the ‘quantity’ as those employed in the public sector would be out of work as the business wouldn’t be able to pay them. This will reduce aggregate demand has gone down and as shown in the diagram below this causes a leftward shift in the AD curve to AD2, as a result real output would decrease to Y1. The reason for this is because as people have lost their jobs they won’t have any income coming into the household, this means demand for goods and services will decrease as consumer spending decreases which could then lead to more jobs being lost in other sectors due to the deficient demand and a downward multiplier effect. P1 P2 Y2 Y1 Real GDP AD AD2 Another reason why aggregate demand would fall due to a loss in consumer spending is due to the disposable income, as there will be cuts in public expenditure it is most likely that there will be cuts on welfare benefits so consumers will start to save more instead of spend.
The price elasticity is important in business because it refers to the change in quantity demanded to the change in the price of a service or product. Elastic demand is a change in the price of the service or goods that can affect the demand. Will Bury product is different, and the success of his product can assume that the price can be elastic for his product. In the market, there are similar products that are available for different prices the lower the price may work out better in attracting new buyers. However, in Will Bury situation he may have to raise prices and sell more items to bring in more
“For instance, the fall in the wage lowers people’s income and thereby reduces demand. That reduction may feed back to firms and reduce the demand for their goods, which might reduce the firms’ demand for workers” (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis, 2010). “If these effects do occur, and are important enough to affect the result, they have to be added for the analysis to be complete. A complete analysis always includes the relevant feedback effects” (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis,
In determining which goods to import from which country and which goods to export, I encountered some of the advantages and some limitations of the international trade. According to the theory of comparative advantage, a country should specialize in the production and export of commodities that it can produce at a lower opportunity cost than other countries while it should import commodities that are produced at a lower opportunity cost than other countries. Limitations such as imposing a quota or tariff can raise the price of products and lead to a loss in consumer surplus or cause retaliation from the country therefore reducing the goods a country is able to export. There are factors that influence the foreign exchange rate which also has an impact on a country’s importing and exporting. Regardless of these things, international trade is important to a countries
If the interest rate is low, it will cause more funds to be available, greater expansion and increased employment. If the interest rate is high, it will cause fewer funds to be available, less expansion, and decreased employment. Fiscal policy is an important tool for managing the economy because of its ability to affect the total amount of output produced or the gross domestic product. The first impact of a fiscal expansion is to raise the demand for goods and services. This greater demand leads to increases in both output and prices.
Contrast the pros and cons of protectionist policies. A: Governments utilize protectionist economic policies to restrict imports and exports. Protectionism helps to protect nations from an increase in the amount of imports, which could affect domestic production. One of the most common protectionist policies includes raising the price of imports via tariffs, keeping industry in the nation more competitive in the domestic market. Protectionism can also include import quotas, or the restrictions on the quantity of imports allowed to enter a country.