The troops would have felt let down as well, so therefore wanted reform and supported Mussolinis violence tactic. This also links in with the north south divide as the troops would be in the south and it hadnt industrialised as much as the north causeing a huge divide socially and economically. This demobalisation of the troops would have threated the higer classes as the troops could easily over power them for the land. Obviously the 5 million troops would have supported Mussolini and therefore caused a growth in his support. Another reason for Mussolinis success was the weakness of the political system.
These all promoted free trade, hence attempting an improvement within the economy. Using Huskinson’s Corn Law scale, lower classes were dealt with during poor harvests. This suggests change and an argument for 1822 being a turning point in British politics as the country appeared to become more liberal. Liberal Tories intended to improve social conditions in order for the Government to be labelled as ‘Enlightened Tory.’ Home Office reforms such as the Repeal of the Combination Act were introduced, granting workers the right to express their grievances through trade unions, and a reform enabling a fairer justice system was set up, stopping
In some parishes this was collected by the churches in others they had specific collectors. The rich and middle classes felt that they were subsidising the poor to be lazy and not take responsibility for themselves and that the poor were just avoiding work and not supporting their own families. They also felt that if the hand outs continued they would never use their own initiative to fund and support themselves and that the existing system encouraged people to have more children than they could afford because they knew their life would be subsidised, so because of this, in 1832 Earl Grey the prime minister set up a poor law commission to examine the existing system and make reforms. The commission led by Nassau Senior and Edwin Chadwick wanted an end to outdoor relief for the poor and were positive that the workhouses would be a success (Bagley,1966 pg 48) The Royal Commissions findings were published and the recommendations become the basis of the poor law amendment act (Checkland 1974). Summary of the 1834 Poor Law amendment act.
Explain why Alexander II introduced further reforms after the emancipation edict of 1861 Emancipation opened many opportunities for further reforms and forced a change in the structure of the Russian society. Serfdom was abolished and the nobility could no longer control them which led to light being shed on other problems in society such as the law, industry and also the military. The most important reason for the introduction of further reforms is that they were a reasonable response to the emancipation of the serfs, but only in short term. The emancipation act gave the serfs power to control their own lives instead of being dictated by people of a higher status, such as the nobility. For this, rural councils known as the Zemstvas were set up in 1864 which offered the serfs a representative government; but they were mostly dominated by the nobility and professionals and many of them resented their loss of power over the serfs.
The Old Poor Law of 1834 was reformed because it could not cope due to the large numbers of people claiming poor relief. This was due to population rise, commercialisation of farming which left people with no jobs, decline of agricultural crafts, harvest failures, food shortages due to war, higher food prices and change in attitude to claiming social welfare as there was no stigma attached to being poor anymore. This led to different measures such as the introduction of the Speenhamland system of 1795. Having investigated the reasons for the reformation of the Poor Law, we will now focus on the reasons that led to the reform. There were six main reasons that led to the old Poor Law Reform to easily pass which were: a willing government, Tories were a minority, Climate change, objectors were not listened to, and a Report based on evidence collected by the commission of enquiry.
What came along the effects of The Depression was the soaring unemployment rate as well as the poor living and working conditions that much of the population had to endure, this caused the people of Germany to look to the government for support. When the republic failed to help their people, the citizens of Germany turned away from the government and instead turned to the the Nazi party, with its nationalistic ideology which seemed promising and an appealing alternative to the Weimer
The new taxes that were imposed on baptism, burial and marriage were resented by many of the commons as a great number, particularly the poorer people, could not afford to pay them and they feared that this would prevent their salvation. Source B suggests that Robert Aske led the uprising in an attempt to prevent or reduce the ‘rising entry-fines and new taxes’. Source B also states that the ‘nobles and gentry disliked… the Statute of Uses’. This was an Act of Parliament which limited the application of uses in property law and had been introduced by Henry as a way for him to rectify his financial issues, so perhaps (as Source B suggests) the nobles had helped to lead the rebellion in an attempt to revert this
The law brought positive changes to the country encouraging more people to seek employment, “working people developed their own self-help movement”. Walsh M, et al, 2000. But also created some negative changes, working conditions were extremely harsh and families were split up. The amendment act was disliked by the poor population of the country because of the leissez-faire system the government had in place, the government’s approach on leissez-faire was to intervene as little as possible with the direction of economic affairs. This had an impact on the poor, it caused stigma and the poor had a mark of disgrace on their reputation.
Compassionate reasons where one of the underlying reasons many historians argue upon the realise of the report on poverty from booth and rowntree in their study of the English town York , a town not normally associated with extreme poverty they found 29% of the population were well below the poverty line. Another reason was the very real fear workers were discouraged by the poor conditions and governments and may later turn against the government and form mass strikes or in serious cases rebellion or join the communist groups within Britain. Political self interest was high on the liberal’s agenda many historians argue. The franchise was being extended to the average man slowly and the liberals realised the average man did not benefit much from the government’s approach to peoples life’s and with the rise of the labour party and other parties many historians argue that it was out of desire to be re-elected that the liberals slowly brought about this change in reform. They didn’t get a majority government in 1910 like they did in 1906 which led them to think that social reform was the way to gain votes.
Before the reforms were passed by Parliament, Britain was controlled by wealthy landowners and aristocrats. The workers began to realize they were not being well represented in the government. So the British citizens began to call for social and political reforms. The demands for reforms became too strong to ignore, and finally, Parliament agreed to change the electoral laws. While Parliament was agreeing to the Reform Act of 1832, one of its members, Michael Sadler was out investigating the treatment of children in the British Textile factories.