Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.
By 1815, the aims of these secret societies changed in the direction of driving out the Austrians and restoring old Monarchs. Consequently, these factors paved the way for revolts and armed the peasants with something they never had had before – power. In a large number, the masses could stand against the oppressive rule of the Austrians. Therefore, the events that followed in the years 1820 – 1849 were all underpinned by the resentment of this from Metternich and the importance he placed on controlling Italy. Metternich was the Austrian chancellor and saw the danger of Italian nationalism and the potentially threatening ideas that
Benito Mussolini had a very important role in his rise to the power of Italy. There were some factors that made the people think in a change in the politic system, and this was taken by him to consolidate his arrival to power. On the one hand, Mussolini made several moves that helped him get closer to the mandate of Italy. He promised to the people of Italy a political stability. By that time the political situation was chaotic, after the Paris conference very little beneficial resolutions were made for Italy.
‘Mussolini's political skill was the main reason he came to power in 1922'.Explain why you agree or disagree with this view. (24) Mussolini’s journey to power required him to use his political skill to win support of key interest groups, yet his coercive measures meant that his opponents were weakened, and driven away from challenging his authority by fear of the repercussions. One of the reasons that display’s how Mussolini gained power through his political skill, was the way in which he seduced different conservative groups. He gained the support of the King by promising to end Italy’s political instability, the King feared a civil war if Fascism was denied power, and Mussolini seemed willing to respect the monarchy and the army. He won over the support of the Catholic Church as Mussolini’s fascist squads were destroying socialism, he also offered to aid the church financially, and he introduced policies specifically to gain church support.
During a depression, political trends become extremist and so the Nazis flourished; Hitler offered both a scapegoat and himself as a strong leader to look up to. The depression gave Hitler the edge he needed to gain ninety-five seats in the Reichstag and ultimately progress from the leader of a minority party to the Dictator of the Third Reich. The Depression also drew attention to the weaknesses of the Weimar Constitution; as poverty and unemployment increased, respect for the democratic system drastically decreased. The German population did not want to be governed by a democracy as it was such a governing body that signed the Treaty of Versailles. Hatred for this document was still rife in Germany and so Hitler, who openly detested the Treaty, became the obvious choice.
The growth in support for fascism in this period was indeed a key factor in Mussolini’s appointment as prime minister because it helped to put him on the political map. However, the level of this support was simply not large enough to explain Mussolini’s rise on its own. More important was the fear of socialism that gripped much of Italy at this time, along with the need for strong and stable government. Mussolini showed great skill in positioning himself as the answer to these two problems at the same time as convincing the Italian establishment that he would be a responsible prime minister who would respect the constitution and control fascist violence. He may not have had huge popular support, but by 1922 significant numbers of the most influential Italians were prepared to tolerate him as the only acceptable alternative to the status quo.
For some home rule was enough to satisfy a need control over internal affairs, for others it was merely a stepping stone in the “evolution of Irish Freedom.” 2 the outbreak of war made these differences more pronounced. Home Rule was in the process of becoming law but with the outbreak of war it had been postponed. This lead to the view by many nationalists, that the legislature was limited. MacNeill described Home Rule as a “cheque continually post-dated” 3 causing many nationalists to question Irish support of the British war effort. The war itself created a political vacuum in Ireland giving separatists an advantage and destabilising support of constitutional Nationalism.
Like many political transitions, it was an untidy and complicated process. Although from the start Mussolini’s intentions were quite difficult to establish, however it could be that Mussolini wanted to set up from the beginning a totalitarian one party state. The first consolidation of fascist power was to strengthen his position in certain aspects. Such as he had to strengthen his position in the government, he still continued his threats of violence to opposition such as the socialists who were very popular since they believed in helping the working class and setting up trade unions to help people improve their work/life conditions each other, so many Italians were on their side. Mussolini’s position as prime minister in October 1922 was by no means secure, the king was still able to at any time dismiss him if any opposition to the fascist party was high and people wanted an alternative government.
Many people believe another fault of the League of Nations that contributed to war was; how they appeased Hitler by letting him have Czechoslovakia. They did this because they thought it would reduce chances of war, yet Hitler soon broke the agreement they had made and war started. Although many people would argue that the above cause was the fault of the League of Nations, I disagree because, if Hitler had not been so aggressively demanding, they would not have needed to appease him. However, the League of Nations is not completely without fault, Italy was disappointed by the League of Nations as she was denied territory promised by Britain and France. This lead Mussolini and Italy to join forces with Germany, making them bear resentment and wanting war.
The current president Hindenburg was old and the people of Germany needed someone new, with new ideas. Hitler promised to scrap the Treaty of Versailles which appealed to many Germans, this is said to have won him many votes in the election. He portrayed himself as a strong leader and a good speaker; he promoted family and moral values to show his country how much he cared for them. This perceived the people that he was right for the country and wasn’t at all dangerous; however there is evidence to show that he was in fact a very dangerous man. Hitler first proved to be dangerous when he set up the SA (brownshirts) they used violence against the voters to intimidate them so that they would vote for the Nazi party.