The main functions of the blood are to transport, defence, regulation and clotting. The oxygen is carried from the lungs to the cells of the body in red blood cells. Carbon dioxide is carried from the body’s cells to the lungs. Cellular waste such as water, carbon dioxide, lactic acid and urea are carried in the blood to be excreted. Hormones, internal secretions that help to control important body processes are also transported by blood to target organs.
Through apolipoprotein C-II, the mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme found on the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacyglycerol (glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acids). Triacyglycerol releases glycerol along with fatty acids found in the chylomicrons. Fatty acids and glycerol can be absorbed in muscle, peripheral tissues, and adipose, for energy as well as storage. The hydrolyzed chylomicrons become chylomicron remnants.
A drug administered systemically relies on the circulatory system to take it to the site of action and to other tissues in the body. After absorption into blood, most drugs must leave the bloodstream and enter the site of action to exert their effect. For a drug administered topically (nonsystemically), entry into or exit from the blood is not necessary. Topical drugs merely need to travel a short distance from the site of administration (i.e., the skin surface for dermal administration) to the site of action (i.e., dermis). However, it is possible for topical drugs to enter the systemic circulation and cause side effects.
These features are brought about through chemical/inflammatory mediators released from damaged tissues. The main effects of these mediators are on the blood supply, causing vasodilation (redness and heat) and increased blood vessel permeability that allow plasma proteins and immunoglobulins to pass easily into the tissues. “Pressure or nerve endings from the interstitial fluid and the effect of some inflammatory mediators such as substance P and prostaglandins that cause pain” (Dobson, 1999). In our case inflammation of a toe might be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a rapid response to an injurious agent that serves to deliver mediators of host defense—leukocytes and plasma proteins—to the site of injury.
They have thin walls. Have larger internal lumen. Contains blood under low pressure. They have valves to prevent blood from flowing backwards. | | Components and function of Blood Blood is used to transport materials around the body, and protect against disease.
Structure and Function of Epithelia Epithelia are layers of the cell that cover internal or external surfaces. Epithelia line all passageways that communicate with the outside world. For example, the digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary tracks. There are four main functions of epithelial tissue. Provide physical protection Control permeability Provide sensation Produce specialized secretions There are various specialized types of epithelia.
Our immune system consists of tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, appendix (no longer needed when grown up), lymphatic vessels, thymus, bone marrow and our spleen. Lymphatic system The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system, comprising a network of conduits called lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph directionally towards the heart. Lymphatic organs play an important part in the immune system,
BIOS255 BIOS 255 WEEK 5 Lab 5 - Lymphatic System & Disease Resistance 1. Describe lymphatic system functions. The primary functions of the lymphatic system are to drain and return interstitial fluid to the blood to absorb and return lipids from the digestive system to the blood, and to filter fluid of pathogens, damaged cells, cellular, and cancerous cells to help protect against invasion. 2. Locate each of the following lymphatic vessels: right lymphatic duct, thoracic (left lymphatic) duct, right and left subclavian veins, and cisterna chyli.
This is here platelets in the clot contract pulling on the fibrin strands that they are attached to. Outcome 4 Be able to obtain capillary blood
Vascular Events in an Inflammatory Response |Events |Simplified description of event |Professional description of event | |1st |Germs from the nail are introduced to the skin |An object punctures the skin, bacteria enters and | | | |multiplies. Hyperemia will then cause neutrophils to line on| | | |the capillary walls. This protects from microorganisms | |2nd |Surrounding cells leak fluid that affects the blood |. Tissue that is damaged can release histamines in the body.| | |vessels | | |3rd |The fluid affecting the surrounding blood vessels causes |Histamine can cause the blood vessels to expand. This allows| | |the release of other cells into the tissue |plasma and neutrophils to move from the blood vessels into | | | |damaged tissue | |4th |As the wounded part of the body reacts to the germs, |Polymorphs move to the bacteria by the chemotaxis and | | |certain cells destroy these germs |ingested.