Assess the view that the disagreements about the Second Front were the most significant cause of tension between Russia and the Western Allies between 1941 and 1945 It can be argued that the single most important cause of tension between the Allies during WW2 were the on-going disagreements over the opening of a Second Front in Europe by the Western Allies. However some historians have suggested that other factors were the primary cause of tension, including the core ideological differences between Russia and the West, the disagreements over Poland and Eastern Europe and finally the change in American leadership in 1945. We can begin to measure the amount of tension caused by each factor during the war by using as our principal criterion the intensity and longevity of any tensions caused, as well as looking at the reactions of the leaders from primary evidence. The disagreements over the second front were arguably the most significant cause of tension between the Western Allies and Russia between 1941 and 1945. This interpretation is presented by McCauley who argues that “the question of the second front was to bedevil tensions between the Allies during the war”.
WW1 had the biggest effect on Russian Government policies from 1855-1964. How far do you agree? Alex Brader I believe that the Civil War had the biggest effect on Russian Government policies because of the change from an autocratic rule to a totalitarian rule. Tsarism was extremely resilient to the forces of change and under Lenin’s rule Labour was militarised which is a very drastic change. In contrast the Tsar weakened the Duma and a progressive bloc was formed.
Both Tsars were thoroughly progressive, bringing reform to Russian bureaucracies and institutions that had slowly stagnated. In addition, both Ivan IV and Peter I succeeded in centralizing authority around the monarchy. Indeed, Peter the Great professed himself to be an admirer of Ivan’s. But the common perception of Ivan the Terrible’s rule as truly “terrible” in comparison to Peter’s is not without base. The latter half of Ivan IV’s reign would be characterized by a bloody reign of terror by the dreaded oprichnik and drawn out military failures in the Baltic.
Was Germany to blame for the start of world war one? Germany was to blame for the First World War, but only to a certain extent. Germany was not solely to blame, but did contribute greatly to the sequence of events that led to war. Germany were a major contributor to the Arms Race, caused tension between many European countries, made alliances, were extremely nationalistic and encouraged Austria – Hungary to declare war on Serbia. In 1904, Germans were encouraged to become nationalists.
How accurate is it to say that the growth of reformist groups in the years from 1881 was the main cause of the 1905 Revolution? The 1905 Revolution was the start of political change in Russia, unlike other major European powers of the time, Russia was being ruled by an autocratic government and any effective reforms would have had to been by ‘change from above’. However, the Tsar Alexander III and his son, Nicholas II were firm conservatives and this ideal route would not have happened. Resentment to the lack of change created the growth of reformist governments and caused a Revolution which catalysed the much needed change in Russia. There were many factors that created a base for the reformist groups to flourish at that time in Russia which in turn created a Revolution.
The Tsar’s ability to make false promises to the people was a reason for him being able to survive the revolution of 1905 but not of 1907 as people knew by then that he was untrustworthy. Secondly, the 1905 revolution happened before the outbreak of WW1 which meant although there was a lot of discontent in Russia in 1905 there was a lot less that the people could blame the Tsar for. In 1917 the Tsar had the power to pull out of the war which was a main reason for the suffering in Russia at the time. This was because millions of men went to fight in WW1 and this meant that back at home there was little food being produced
The Bolshevik threat to Tsardom during the reign of Nicholas II wasn't as important as other threats from other political parties, the war and as Nicholas was to himself. The beginning of World War I signalled the beginning of the end of the Romanov dynasty. On August 2 1914 Tsar Nicholas II issued a formal proclamation of hostilities towards Germany at the Winter Palace to a crowd of thousands of cheering Russians in Palace Square. The Tsar abdicated the Russian throne three years later and the causes and the effects of his abdication were both numerous and large. Some believe the Tsar lacked integrity, others say Alexandra and Rasputin were to blame; still others blame the dismantling of the Duma and the harsh rule of the government.
Despite the key cause of the February revolution was sparked by Russia’s involvement in World War I, it wasn’t the only factor in the regime. Chains of social and economic events from 1905 – 1917 combined to influence the decisions of the Russian society. The humiliation of the defeat to Japan during the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, the social hierarchy of Russia, the Bloody Sunday massacre in 1905 and the poorly led army during World War I are just some of the key events attributing towards the cause of the February Revolution. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Russia was hunting for a warm water port on the Pacific Ocean so it would be able to complete trades with other nations over water and develop a stronger naval force. In 1904 where negotiations between Japanese and Russia broke down, Japan declared war on Russia and the Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Eastern fleet at Port Arthur.
Due to the lack of morale, war weariness and economic crisis the unrest was beginning to form a dangerous revolution. (J Hite & C Hinton. 2000) Fearing for his life and under the advice of his Supreme Commander General Ludendorff William II the Kaiser of Germany handed over his power to a civilian government thereby abdicating his throne. He then left Germany and went into exile in Holland, where he lived until 1941. The new regime headed by Prince Max, attempted some reforms but ultimately this was ineffective due to the discontent and anger within the population of the failed war.
How far do you agree that the first world war was responsible for the 1917 revolution I think that a major factor contributing to the 1917 revolution was WW1,athough many other factors contributed to the eventual abdication of the Tsar followed by revolution. These include food shortages and Role of the Tsarina and Rasputin(to name a few). However these factor are closely tied in with the war so may not have contributed toward the outbreak of revolution in not for war breaking out in 1914. One of the most, important factors the Russian army needed if success in the war was to be possible was a strong central leadership. The Tsar therefore made the decision to make himself commander and chief of the army, with becoming Chief of the army, the Tsar was made directly responsible of all of the Successes that the Russian army suffered, but also all the defeats would fall onto his back.