But throughout the 1930s towards WW2, the League of Nations is shown to be very weak; hence it couldn’t prevent the Abyssinia Crisis. In 1934 Mussolini attempted a coup with Austrian Nazis to overthrow President Dollfuss, however the plan failed and Dollfuss was murdered. At this point France and Italy formed an alliance which would guarantee Austria’s sovereignty. Two months later Mussolini learned of Germany’s rearmament program and began to grow suspicion of Hitler. During April 1915, the “Stresa Front” took place, which consisted of Britain, France and Italy; in which all three nations Criticised Hitler’s gamble in Austria and was reminded that his aggressive actions had breached the spirit of the Locarno Conference.
Why did Italy invade Ethiopia in 1935? Where is Ethiopia? Italy had adopted Hitler’s plans to expand Germany, therefore invaded territories it considered German. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by Sudan, Kenya, and Somalia. 3.
As World War II began, however, Franklin Roosevelt and Congress revised the acts to allow arms trading with the Allies. Lend-Lease Act Germany quickly occupied most of Europe and threatened to invade Great Britain. As German bombers ravaged British cities, the United States decided to help Britain by passing the Lend-Lease Act. This law allowed the United States to lend arms to Britain and, later, to the Soviet Union. Attack on Pearl Harbor On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor.
Prior to his taking of Abyssinia, Mussolini’s foreign policy seemed to differ greatly from Hitler’s, for example in 1934 Mussolini sent troops to the Italian border with Austria in reaction to Hitler’s attempt to invade Austria. This move indicates that Mussolini was untrusting of Hitler and made a concentrated effort to ensure that Hitler’s position in the region remain largely unchanged. Moreover his joining of the Stresa Front in 1935 along with Britain and France in a bid to contain Germany would indicate once more that prior to Abyssinia, Mussolini’s position in regards to Germany was one of reluctance and hesitance. However, following Abyssinia, Italy’s international position shifted, with Britain and France condemning the move. Crucially however, Hitler supported Mussolini’s invasion and did not condemn it, and Hitler soon appeared to be Italy’s stronger option within Europe, and so Mussolini steadily synchronised his foreign policy with Hitler’s and it could be argued that it was at this point Mussolini’s foreign policy took the greatest shift.
-but the neutrality act covered only implements of war. Roosevelt accordingly called for a voluntary restriction, a "moral embargo". -that embargo aroused the protest of the Italian government and met with general defiance by American oil companies. The American policy preceded by many weeks economic sanctions by the league which did not include oil. -when Congress convened in 1936 one of its first task was to replace the neutrality resolution of 1935, but in the end it extended the existing act until May 1, 1937, with amendments banning credits to belligerents and leaving it up to the president to decide that a state of war existed before the act could be
Although, the development of change already faced opposition from right-winged supporters, including rich landowners who feared social changes that the Republic would try to implement. Under Generals Sanjurjo, Franco and Mola, the Spanish Civil War began as a military coup, which was aimed to put an end to the democratic political change that was seen in 1931. As seen in Italy with Mussolini in 1922 and with Hitler in Germany in 1933, one could argue that the rise of fascism subsequently kick started the demand of a takeover in Spain. But, we have to bear in mind the bad timing of 1931 to implement such a change, with the worldwide economic crisis caused by the 1929 Wall Street Crash in America, and the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, there was now fear throughout Europe of communism and revolution. Although at the beginning of the rebellion, the three main generals were not actually all in Spain.
Long running weaknesses within the original political system aided in developing support for Mussolini, along with his ability to change the party’s policies to accommodate all members of society. Although the war was important in allowing this rise in support for the PNF, it was not the only factor which played a part. After the land promised to Italy in the Treaty of London did not materialise, many Italians felt that their victory was one which had been ‘mutilated’. Orlando, Italy’s Prime Minister had failed to fight for the promised land during the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference, leaving Italy bitter towards its own government. Prominent socialist at the time D’Annunzio led some 2000 soldiers into the city of Fiume in defiance of the Italian Government.
Fascist ideology can be seen as a key feature to the outbreak of world war two at the end of the 1930s however fascist foreign policy was developed within Germany and Italy for other reasons. Germany and Italy were both defeated during world war one and were not invited into the league of nations also both countries suffered from the treaty of Versailles and wanted revenge and to re look the points of the treaty. Germany felt humiliated by the terms of the treaty her once great and powerful military was now minimum and she could not defend her borders if invaded. Italy felt betrayed by the allied forces who had promised her lands in the Adriatic for her support within the war. When Hitler came to power within Germany in the 1930s he aimed to bring all German speaking people under one great empire and that Germans were the master race who were superior to Jews and Slavs this showed the aggressive nature of Germans foreign policy because for Hitler to bring all German speaking people into one great empire it would mean having to invade territory she had lost from ww1.
By that time the political situation was chaotic, after the Paris conference very little beneficial resolutions were made for Italy. The next five governments were ineffective and couldn’t solve economic problems which were making peoples life poorer. The promise made people start supporting him, and his ideals of anti-communism and trade union power helped him because by that time there were a lot of strikes from this people and they had a lot of opponents. The church, big businesses, middle classes, and army were some of the strongest sectors of the society that supported him. He was seen as an applicator of law and order, which was a very important issue in that moment where strikes and social and politic conflict occurred.
When Italy intervened into ww1 it was divided there were two camps. Giolitti who opposed Italy joining the war and Salandra who was prime minister during 1914-1916 and he lead the campaign for Italy to go to war. In the end Salandra won the campaign only because he got the approval of the king. Normally a country goes into war undivided then as the war goes on becomes divided however Italy went into the war divided which lead to further instability and weakness in the liberal state. During the war Italy lost a decisive battle at Caporetto at this battle 300,000 men were captured and they lost 160km.