Structure and Functions of the Parts of the Animal Cell

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STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF THE ANIMAL CELL Cell membrane: it is the outer boundary of a cell. It consists of four different types of molecules thus, phospholipids, protein, carbohydrates, and cholesterol. The cell membrane isolates the cytoplasm from the external environment, it communicates with other cells and also regulates the exchange of substances. Nucleus: the nucleus the most prominent organelle of the cell, it is round or oval in shape depending on the type of cell. The nucleus constitutes most of the genetic material of the cell - the DNA. It controls the heredity characteristics of an organism.It is responsible for protein synthesis, cell division, growth and differentiation. Cytoplasm: the cytoplasm is the fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the cellular organelles.The enzymes in the cytoplasm metabolize the macromolecules into small parts, so that it can be easily available for the other cellular organelles like mitochondria. It also transports the products of cellular respiration. Mitochondria: the mitochondria are rod shaped structures. It has the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The membranes are made up of phospholipids and proteins. The simpler molecules of nutrition are sent to the mitochondria to be processed and to produce charged molecules. These charged molecules combine with oxygen and produce ATP molecules. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation. Ribosomes: the ribosomes are the cellular component that make proteins from all amino acids. Ribosomes are made from complexes of RNAs and proteins.They assemble amino acids to form specific proteins, proteins are essential to carry out cellular activities. Rough endoplasmic reticulum: The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with the protein manufacturing ribosome, which gives it a rough appearance.The rough

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