Also known as a principle. A theory is a synthesis of facts and well tested Hypothesis about certain aspects of the natural world. 1.11 Integrated Science 14. Why study integrated science? Studying integrated science allows us to understand the physical world – to appreciate it more deeply or to have the power to alter it- requires concepts from different branches of science.
A scientifically accepted general principle supported by a substantial body of evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussion or investigation (Lincoln et al.,1990). Again in simple terms, a theory explains how nature works. Can be modified. In conclusion, scientific laws and theories officially do not have the same meaning. I can understand how people can confuse these two words for having the same
Essay 2 Lesson 1, question 3: Summarize the criteria of a hypothesis-based scientific study. How is this technique similar to and different from the solving of everyday problems? Research and describe an experiment of your choice that demonstrates the basic considerations that must be taken in the design of a good, hypothesis-based, scientific experiment. The criteria for a hypothesis-based scientific study are first, coming up with a study that can be tested or falsifiable. There must be criteria to go by that can prove whether the study is true or false.
6. People are too different from the subjects of natural scientific research. So many of the advantages of the scientific method are not applicable to the traditional scientific approach - for example, replication and control. Conclusion Generally, the methods of traditional science have either been radically adapted by sociologists so that they can still be used - the comparative method, structured questionnaires, or totally rejected - interpretive Sociology. Scientific research has been important in generating debate in Sociology as to how
* Questions of Procedure: What should be done about it? 5. How do classical stases apply in analyzing scientific discourse? * evidential: what exists or doesn’t exist in the natural world? * Interpretive: facts are settled, but argue on what theory applies and so on * Evaluative: the significance * Methodological: procedures and techniques + what will be the outcome 6.
Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose not to use experiments when conducting research- 20 marks In scientific research, an experiment is a method of investigating casual relationships among variables, or to test a hypothesis. The ability of establishing this relationship is why some sociologists, such as positivists, favour this method of research. These are three types of experimental methods that sociologists ay use in their research. The first type of experiments that sociologists use are lab experiments, and these are an artificial environment in which scientists can control all the different variables to see the effect that they have. A practical strength of lab experiments is that they favour science approaches, however controlling all of the possible variables can be difficult and it can’t always be done.
But it has also caused problems such as pollution and global warming. Science has cognitive power, it can allow us to explain, predict and control the world. Popper believes science is an open belief system where every scientist’s theories are open to scrutiny and criticism from others. He says that science is governed by falsification. This is where scientists try to falsify existing theories, trying to find evidence that would disprove them.
However, this faith has been dimmed by science causing problems. For example pollution, weapons and global warming are products of science. While science protects us from natural dangers, it creates its own risks. However the good and bad effects of science show features distinguishing it from other belief systems, known as its cognitive power. It enables us to explain, predict and control the world in a way that non scientific or pre scientific belief systems cannot do.
Science is governed by the principle of falsificationism. Scientists set out to try and falsify existing theories, deliberately seeking evidence that would disprove them. If the evidence from an experiment or observation contradicts a theory and shows it to be false, the theory can be discarded and the search for a better explanation can begin. In science, knowledge claims live or die by the evidence. Popper argues discarding falsified knowledge claims; is what enables scientific understanding
4.5. does the fact that there is supporting material from experience for a statement make that statement reliable? 4.6. do all scientific hypothesis and theories arise from experiences( theory of relativity, double helix structure of DNA) 4. These questions suggest that the standard image of science is largely discredited and is replaced by new views...(popper, Kuhn) The contribution of Karl