Fundamentals in Research Methodology Paper When studying fundamental concepts of research methodology in the field of psychology, researchers generate published psychological studies first before gathering a hypothesis to begin their research. “A research hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon; it is often stated in the form of a prediction together with an explanation for the predicted outcome” (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, Zechmeister, 2009, p 19). Shaughnessy (2009) points out, when making decisions on whether or not their research is good, researchers determine the scientific importance of the research and its advancements. Understanding the scientific method of psychology and knowing the difference in qualitative and quantitative data help with understanding the process of scientific theory construction and testing to psychology. Psychology is developed by theories and research to answer issues concerning the behavior and mental processes of people and society.
d) Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose not to use experiments when conducting research. (20 marks)The three different experiments that sociologists are able to use are laboratory experiments, field experiments and the comparative method. Sociologists don't tend to use experiments as they include lots of practical, theoretical and ethical problems. In laboratory experiments, it is very difficult to control, as well as identify, all the possible variables that may have an influence on a particular scenario in the past. Positivists see it as possibly unethical to control all of the variables within laboratory experiments as most of the time, participants are unaware of the real reason they are
(Malhotra and Birks, 2007, 159.) Checking the reliability and validity of the research instrument is more important before starting any kind of analysis , especially in respect of conducting multivariate analysis with Structural equation modeling(Dillon,W.R and M.Goldstein 1984:Hair et al,2010),validity testing means testing the instrument whether it has the ability to measure what it intends to measure. The two forms of validity testing are 1) content validity 2) Construct validity. Content
Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data. 2. Which of the following are quantitative?
Unlike in a field experiment where the participants are completely unaware that they are being observed so it gives more of a natural response, this allows the researchers to gain results with greater validity. In a laboratory experiment, the researchers have to tell the percipients the reasons for the experiment to allow the percipients to give full consent this is due to the ethical reasons such as if the person doesn’t agree due to religion/beliefs, ethnicity ect. Where as, the percipients of a field experiment have to be unaware of the reasons for the research to allow a higher rate of natural answers. This means that field experiments are less ethically agreed with. An example of a laboratory experiment is Asch (a psychologist) who tested the rate of conformity within groups.
If the research is too small, you will not be able to produce an acceptable report. Methodology Explain the process that you plan to use to gather the information that supports the thesis statement, answer the research questions, or achieve the stated objectives. Give enough information so that the funding agency, an employer or in your case, the lecturer can understand how the researches will collect the needed information. Work Schedule (Gantt Chart) Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in the research or project. Call to Action Conclude with a review of the
Karl Popper also states that "Sociology can be scientific by following a particular set of methodological procedures" BUT it cannot provide the ultimate truth because there is always the possibility of falsification. He also talks about deductive methodology which is when sociologists make
* Do not leave eggs, meats, poultry, seafood, or milk for extended periods of time at room temperature. Promptly refrigerate leftovers and food prepared in advance. * Wash your hands, cutting boards, and knives with antibacterial soap and warm to hot water after handling raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs. Wooden cutting boards are not recommended since they can be harder to clean completely. * Avoid unpasteurized milk or foods made from unpasteurized milk.
The question will be ‘where do the risks come from?’. Mainly, ‘the equipment’ is the answer but another question come up ‘will all risks eliminate even if the equipment are well-designed, built and operated with 100% safety?’ No they can’t but they are necessary. I believe equipment is not only built to prevent accidents but also can minimize the impact if the accidents happen. However, people can also be killed or injured because of the lack of awareness and education. They have no enough knowledge to deal with