Raleigh et al (1991) found that if serotonin levels were reduced by altering their diet, there was an increase in aggressive behaviour whereas an increase in serotonin levels resulted in a decrease in aggressive behaviour suggesting the difference in aggression was due to the serotonin levels. Other research demonstrating the link between low levels of serotonin and aggression was done by Bond (2005). He found that antidepressants which increase serotonin levels reduced irritability and impulsive aggression. The link between dopamine and aggressive behaviour is not as well established. However, increased levels of dopamine stimulated by amphetamines have shown an increase in aggression whereas antipsychotic drugs that reduce dopamine levels have been shown to reduce violent behaviour (Lavine and Buitelaar).
Some researchers suggest that caffeine may even prevent diseases such as type II Diabetes and Parkinson’s, although on the other hand, studies show that caffeine worsens diabetes in those who already have the disease. The ongoing research about the drug is crucial for determining why caffeine acts the way it does. It is a proven fact that many times a person may have to use more of the drug to feel the effects due to developing a high tolerance. Physical dependence can take place in days, and some symptoms of withdrawal include drowsiness and headache. The writer states that taking too much caffeine can cause one to experience jitteriness, sleepiness, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular problems.
However, research findings within the area of genetics and addiction are inconsistent. For example Noble conducted a meta-analysis and found that 48% of severe alcoholics, 32% of less severe alcoholics carried the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene. Several other studies have failed to find a similar link, this places doubt upon the reliability of the explanation and research findings. Neurotransmitters such as dopamine are also linked to addictive behaviour. According to the disease model addictive behaviour is initiated because drugs/alcohol stimulate the reward pathway within the brain which causes dopamine to be
Impaired judgments due to decreased levels of inhibitions can lead to risky sexual activity. As well, those users that use intravenously increase their chances of contracting HEP B or C or HIV/AIDS. Crystal methamphetamine is not necessarily an aphrodisiac, but through increasing the level of dopamine through triggering the release of powerful brain chemicals, it may increase sex drive. Ironically, while desire and stamina are increased, it ultimately decreases the users’ sexual desirability and performance (PBS, n.d.). 6connected with the fact that crystal meth can suppress one’s appetite.
CAFFEINE - it can cause problems if a person drinks several cups of coffee or other caffeine full drinks a day. Symptoms may include headache, depressed moods, lethargy, nausea and muscle pain or stiffness. Once again is this drug illegal NO ! All of these drugs can do heavy damage and not one of them would ever become illegal
It is also argued that even anti-drugs campaigns have had an effect on the increase of drug taking rather than a decrease; Hornik found that his anti-drugs campaign only encouraged an increase in marijuana use, he then concluded that campaigns are not effective to young people due to them being frequently exposed to shocking images and that drug campaigns carry subtle messages that a lot of people are trying the drug which leads them to wanting to try it for themselves. This explanation of the role of media in addictive behaviour may help to explain why the majority of this behaviour is observed in the western world where there is the most exposure to media influences. However in Afghanistan, where there is arguably less media influences; this can therefore argue that this explanation is reductionist as it fails to account for other factors such as the role of genetic inheritance or emotions; Comings found that smokers and ex-smokers had a 48% increased incidence of the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene compared to 25% of the general population, this suggests that genetic inheritance does play a role in the initiation of addictive behaviours. The SLT
It has also been studied that when women smoke while pregnant can also cause there child to grow up to be obese. In addition, it seems as though if the parents are big people more than likely the child will be to. The health dept. has shown that over half of teenagers drink 27 oz. or more of soda a day.
Alcohol has a biphasic effect on the human body which means that its effects change over time. First, alcohol typically produces feelings of relaxation and cheerfulness then once you drink more and more it can lead to dehydration, coordination problems, blurred vision and even death. One of the worse things I think it causes to your body is dehydration, you need water to stay alive and basically alcohol just sucks it all up. Dehydration can lead to electrolyte an imbalance which is why you get headaches and feel dizzy afterwards. This is also why you get a headache in the morning because your brain swells up from lack of water.
Instead of grabbing a glass of milk, most kids, teens and adults would rather drink soda. The effects of the preservatives and artificial sweeteners can break down the enamel on your teeth, making them prone to rotting. The reason that most people who drink to much soda have or are more prone to rotting teeth, cavities, etc., is because sugary drinks coat you teeth, gums and tongue for hours after you drink them, and most people don’t rinse or brush their teeth right after drinking soda. (Anne) When tooth decay starts to reach the nerve, the root, and the area at the base of the tooth, the tooth may die and, if let untreated, an abscess can develop. (Term Life Insurance) Drinking soda through a straw can help prevent corroding your teeth because the
These individuals have a problem with perception as far as their body image goes. It is said that about 10 percent of individuals suffering from anorexia are male (Robb & Dadson, 2002). This recent increase is thought to be associated with the use of steroids in young men. Men with this disorder are nothing like the many women who suffer from it. Women are more prone to develop an eating disorders because they "feel fat," wherein men are often medically overweight at some point during the disorder and then come to feel a sense of pressure to be thin.