Outline Some of the Ways in Which Relationships and Processes Within Schools Can Impact Upon Educational Achievement. (12 Marks)

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One way in which relationships and processes within schools can impact upon educational achievement is labelling; in particular, teacher-pupil relationships. Labelling can have a very negative impact on students educational achievement. It suggests that teacher's judge students based on social characteristics such as class, gender, ethnicity rather than their actually ability. The label placed on an individual can have effect on their performance as it leads to self-fulfilling prophecy where they act upon the label. Rosenthal and Jacobson's study showed that young children were effected more by labelling than older students, this is because the younger ones will start to believe the label that they have been given, which then leads to self-fulfilling prophecy, they live up to what they have been labelled as. They did a field experiment, giving teachers false information about the students and their IQ scores. They found that the students performed in line with the false information that the teachers had, regardless to the actual IQ scores. This showed that the teachers focus more on the 'higher IQ' students to make them achieve even higher rather than helping the 'lower IQ' students to help them improve. This is a limitation of their study because the 'lower IQ' students are getting ignored/not the main focus to the teacher so these students will not improve as much. This can lead to poor relationships between teach and some lower ability students because they are judged negatively and put into lower sets, they are labelling them. The teachers focus and pay more attention to the ideal pupil, the pupils seen as the ones who clearly have the ability and potential to do well. Subcultures also have an effect on educational achievement of individuals; they can be created due to different social characteristics of individuals such as class, ethnicity, gender, youth
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