Many sociologists have linked labelling in school, especially by teachers, with the difference in achievements in terms of ethnicity. Negative stereotypes and labels may cause teacher to treat students from an ethnic minority differently, which could in turn, disadvantage them and ultimately, result in them underachieving. Studies from different sociologists back up and support this. Gillborn and Youdell (2000) found in their studies that teachers were more likely to discipline black students quicker than they would with their white counterparts, due to the fact that teachers held “racialised expectations”. They argued that they stereotyped and expected black students to present behaviour such as threatening and challenging authority, which leaves the student feeling underestimated and picked on.
Payne stated that students should learn the “hidden rules” of the middle class from their educators so that they have another set of rules to use if they choose to do so. Impoverished students, compared to students of middle or upper class, often have a lack of proper funding, thus, a lack of appropriate resources to use in their education. Due to this, they are often unprepared for school, not having the money to purchase books and other educational tools. Both authors realize this, but argue that the responsibility lies on different shoulders. Payne states that impoverished students face inequality at school, insinuating that the school should be responsible for helping to provide for these students so that they can have a better education.
Racism is linked to the educational achievement of minority ethnic groups, however the connections are complex. Gilborn and Mirza conclude that ‘social class and gender differences are also associated with differences in attainment but neither can account for persistent underlying ethnic inequalities: comparing like with like, African Caribbean, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils do not enjoy equal opportunities.’ They also argue that in promoting educational inclusion as a means of raising standards, there is a need ‘for clarity and guidance in translating the commitment to equality and inclusion into policy proposals and practice at the local and school level. A recent research report found that: • Children whose first language is other than English do not perform as well as other children across the Foundation Stage scales • Pupils for whom English was an additional language have lower attainment than pupils whose first language is English. The difference between the two groups is
The study found that the counsellor judged pupils largely on their social class; this therefore put them at a disadvantage as middle-class students were placed on higher level courses. The self-fulfilling prophecy is another internal factor that can be linked to social class differences in achievement. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it being made. Some sociologists argue that labelling can effect pupil’s achievement by creating a self-fulfilling prophecy. This can be seen in a study of a primary school by Rosenthal and Jacobson.
Labelling is where a teacher (or another adult) will give a student a name that is in relation to their personality or ability. This can be positive or negative, for example, bright boy or troublemaker. Underachievement can be said to be anything under a C grade for GCSE’s or not meeting your target grade. Some sociologists agree with the statement as they say that students feel that teachers will determine their future. If they are labelled as being ‘stupid’ early on in their career then they will be placed in the lower sets and streams.
A school that requires its attendants to pass a test is charged with discrimination when it does not meet the quota for its admittance. The answer to this problem, from a supporter of affirmative action, is the inflation of the minorities’ grades on these tests. Institutions are then forced to keep a certain balance in the diversity of their student body, which can lead to the inflation of the minorities’ grades on all subjects. This grade inflation would then lead to a poorer education and the reality of a failing education system. This same kind of comparison is evident in the work force.
This type of stereotype is similar to that of the “dumb jock”, and like the students in the experiment college athletes are often portrayed as inferior academically (Lubus, 2011). These stereotypes cause the students to feel inferior because of the self-fulfilling prophecy, and the students adopt these attributes and behaviors because that is how their environment makes them feel. This study shows how our society can easily use stereotypes and prejudice to create an environment where they become the reality. The self-fulfilling prophecy uses the expectations of these stereotypes to create that environment, and this will affect a person’s own behaviors and self-impressions. I believe this creates a false sense of the stereotypes playing true, and that in actuality the people classified in the stereotype may be nothing like
There is usually bullying in schools, but something that not everyone knows is that there is also racism going on in schools everyday. There are students and teachers that are racist and that should not be acceptable. A very popular racist phrase is “go back where you came from” that phrase is disrespectful in so many ways. America is supposed to be the land of opportunities not the land to be bullied because of your race. Kids go to school to learn and be successful, but how can they achieve anything when they are constantly being bashed on.
Topic: Cultural bias in IQ testing At all levels of education, there is great concern about the low performance of racially and linguistically diverse students on standardized tests. A wealth of argument surrounds intelligence tests , specifically given the consistently lower performance of minority groups. Tests have been parts and puzzle of nearly all educational system worldwide. It’s truly a fundamental part of the teaching and learning process. Many research have been conducted to enquire into the cultural biasness in IQ testing which confirms of its thriving existence in the educational fraternity.
Also, because the teachers have middle class values as well, the cultural deprivation theorists believe that they will have a bias against the working class kids and therefore they will not be able to teach them properly since their values and cultures conflict. Compensatory education is a policy that was designed to deal with the problem of cultural deprivation, by providing extra resources to schools and communities in deprived areas. Compensatory education programmes were introduced to intervene early in the socialisation process to compensate children for deprivation they experience at home. The most comprehensive programme was Head Start. It involved health care, social services, and education.