Phantom Limb Syndrome Phantom Limb Syndrome is basically sensations, stimulations or pains felt in a limb after it has been amputated. Dr. Ramachandran describes this phenomenon as receptors in the somatosensory cortex receiving signals from surrounding receptors after its corresponding limb has been amputated, almost cross wiring the receptors per se. People like Derick Stein, an amputee, will even feel incredible pain where their limb(s) once were or in their phantom limb. Many different things have been attempted to quiet down eliminate these pains and incredible sensations of discomfort, from different types of physical therapy to medications. In the somatosensory cortex there are receptors that are connected to all parts of your body, Dr. Ramachandran describes this as “a map of the surface of the body, every point on the surface of the body has a connecting point in your brain.” (Ramachandran).
* myoclonus The sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles. * myofascial release A specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia syndrome, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders, and carpal tunnel syndrome. * myolysis The degeneration of muscle tissue. * myoparesis Weakness or slight muscular paralysis. * myorrhaphy Surgical suturing of a muscle.
Researchers know certain structuresof the brain that contribute to the formation of flashbulb memories, but no one really understands the whole process. Berrios tried to fill in this gap with his theory in his scholarly article Flashbulb memories and other repetitive images: A psychiatric perspective. He stated that “flashbulb memories could be formed by the activity of an ancient brain mechanism evolved to capture emotional and cognitive information relevant to the survival of the individual or group” (E.Berrios, 1999, pg.115). The severity of the incident that one experiences is also a good indicator in the creation of a flashbulb memory. Encarta states that studies that have shown that
The characteristics of this medical condition are redness in the affected area, swelling, warmth, and pain on both sides of the body. The effects rheumatoid arthritis has on the human body are joint stiffness, especially after a patient has been sitting for an extended period of time, fatigue, and of course, pain in and swelling of the joint (Zelman, 2011). PAIN MANAGEMENT Treating chronic joint pain is not always easy. This is especially difficult if the cause etiology and origination point of the pain is unknown. There are many ways to treat chronic joint pain; it is the decision of the patient in cooperation of the patient’s physician to decide which treatment method is the right one for that patient.
Pain is often felt in the neck, arms, and even legs. This procedure is done through a small incision in the back of the neck. Epidural Steroid Injections: An epidural steroid injection is an injection that gives relief from low back pain and from certain types of neck pain. Once injected into
While there is still not a majority of fibromyalgia researchers who support any one theory, significant progress is being made in identifying an etiology” (Verbunt, 2008). Researchers are constantly looking at diverse explanations for the cause of fibromyalgia. Some, for example, are exploring hormonal disturbances and chemical imbalances that affect nerve signaling. Other experts believe fibromyalgia with its deep muscle pain is linked to stress, illness, or trauma. Still others think there is a hereditary cause or say there is no explanation at all.
When analyzing one child who may, or may not, see side effects which include tics, anxiety, chest pain, psychiatric disorders, or blood pressure changes, there is something to keep in mind about the widespread use of such tactics on the children and their developing mentality. The old saying goes, “the children are our future,” with that being said, what future are we establishing with this plethora of medication? Long term physiological and psychiatric effects are in much debate with very little data on either, however, there are some concepts that do not require firm statistics to realize an issue in the making. An article on anti-depressants brings to light a concern that does not appear much in the ADHD debates, that of a child's sense of self (Sharpe, 2012). Adults diagnosed with depression, or even adult ADHD, have an idea of who they were before the medication, and as such, can see the differences that medication may, or may not, have made.
Background Although there is a lot known about the history and methods of torture, there has been little research done on its physical and psychological effects. However thanks to the recent advancements made in the fields of social and clinical science, scientist now have an opportunity to further advance studies on the long term effects of torture (Stuart W. Turner, Caroline Grost-Unsworth, 1995). Initial research into the psychological effects of torture began after the Second World War when the survivors of concentration camps and the holocaust were interviewed regarding their traumatic experiences. These interviews became the basis for research into the psychological effects of traumatic experiences. Since that time psychologists have continued to interview victims of torture and have used the information to evaluate the psychological impacts of torture.
Acupressure and acupuncture are widely supported by eastern medicine and skepticized by western medicine. Given the relative low cost and risk of the procedures, they may be worth a try. Chiropractic care can be beneficial when treating some spinal diseases, but the area affected by spinal stenosis cannot be adjusted. When asked about hypnotism Dr. Rappport only said, “There is no evidence to support hypnotism having been used to effectively treat back pain”. The smirk on his face suggested he was not a believer.
The most commonly affected areas are the underarms, hands, and feet. According to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, hyperhidrosis is believed to be caused by an abnormal and hyperactive central nervous system response. Although there is no official cause or cure for hyperhidrosis, there are some treatment options available to help keep the excess sweating under control. One of the most common treatment options are antiperspirants. There are over-the-counter and prescription antiperspirants.