Lesher says, “Addiction is a brain disease expressed in the form of compulsive behavior.” As with most chronic diseases, addiction should also be treated with multiple recurring treatments since the brain chemistry of addicts often causes them to relapse into drug use. Lesher makes his case that addiction is a brain disease by stating that addicts cannot quit taking drugs on their own because they require medical treatment like most ill patients. The authors final opinion on addiction is that initial drug use is present due to the voluntary behavior of the addict and while it does not absolve the user of their responsibility as it was their fault, once they have developed an addiction, their brain has chemically changed so much that they can not will themselves to quit and must be treated as though they have a medical disease. NO: Alva Noe states that addiction is not a disease of the brain. First, he points that not all addictions are chemical substances and there are many activities that can be addictive to people.
In terms of biochemistry, chemical imbalances in the brain may be involved in certain mental illnesses. Neurotransmitters, for example, play a very important part in behaviour – one theory links depression to low levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline. However, the relationship between neurotransmitters and depression is very complex and therefore, more research is needed to discover the exact link between this and the disorder. People suffering from depression, also often have high levels of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol is sometimes referred to as a ‘stress hormone’ because it is produced in times of stress.
Since then, the construct of phantom limb pain has challenged the assumptions regarding the relationship between body and mind because the pain reported by the amputees was thought to be imagined or hallucinatory. We now know that their pain is real; however, the etiology of phantom limb pain remains, for the most part, unknown and speculated. What is known is that there is an obvious kinesthetic connection between the brain and the body.
who told you about 9/11? Brown and Kulik proposed the idea of Flashbulb Memories after being amazed at the detailed memories some people had of traumatic events. They said, providing an event; directly effects a person’s life, is seen as surprising and/or the person has prior knowledge so it can be related to existing memory structures, a special neural mechanism may be activated. This mechanism takes a ‘photograph’ of said event and ‘prints’ the details permanently into the memory system. The memory is said to be like a photo due to its unchanging nature and high levels of accuracy.
Eva Hudson Psych MWF 8 2/27/14 Flashbulb Memory When I looked up flashbulb memory, I found a plethora of sources; one stating that flashbulb memories are “distinctly vivid, precise, concrete, long lasting memories of a personal circumstance surrounding a person’s discovery of shocking events.” (www.uic.edu) Another stated that it is a “detailed recollection of a memorable event.” (www.apa.org) Both of these are stating, though one more eloquently than the other, that flashbulb memory is like a photograph of an event in one’s mind that is etched there by great tragedy or emotion. The concept of flashbulb memory was proposed in 1977 by two psychologists Roger Brown, and James Kulik, who hypothesized that these recollections are so emotionally attached to our psych that they're imprinted as wholly, vividly, and accurately as a photograph. Several examples of such great tragedy that it affected the nation as a whole include the events of 9/11, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the Challenger explosion, Pearl Harbor, the bombing on Hiroshima, and the Sandy Hook elementary school shooting. All of these, even though they didn’t just affect Americans, are worldwide and national tragedies that I’m sure have been imprinted on the minds of my generation and older generations. More tragedies are sure to come, because that is the world in which we live in.
Effects of stress on Hypertension Stress effects a variety of different topics such as blood pressure, anxiety, change in behavior, and many more topics the list goes on and on. Most people are unaware of the effects stress has on your body. They try to down play it as nothing is wrong, but it fact stress can really put a toll on your body and the way you act. The topic that’s going to be talked about that stress effects is Hypertension. Hypertension and stress go hand in hand; stress has a direct effect on hypertension.
Emotions define who we are to ourselves, as well to others. They are the central core of psychiatric disorders and can change our physical well-being. Emotional experiences can leave strong traces in the brain, either good or bad. Scientists once thought that memories would only go to one system in the brain. But they have discovered that there are various ways for memories to be formed.
The Psychoanalysis Perspective Abstract. Sigmund Freud, the Father of Personality Psychology, highlights many theories in his writings. Most noted in this paper was the Psychoanalytic Perspective, which gives an in-depth view of determinism, the importance of conflict, early experience, infantile sexuality, and most illustrious the importance of unconscious motivation. This theory assumed that there exist three levels of consciousness in which the human mind functions. People did not come to accept his theory at first, but after much testing it was proven mostly valid and reliable.
They tend to be long-lasting, and can be recalled easily because the event is highly significant and can occur in times of shocking or horrific moment. Brown and Kulik said in 1977 that the event must be special and surprising for it to become a flashbulb memory, and that that is the reason why they become imprinted in the memory (Thinkquest.org, 2010). They also say that it is common for people with flashbulb memories to remember where they were, who they were with, what they were doing, even what they were wearing at the time. Also how they felt about it and what happened after the event. However Neisser said in 1982 that the nature of the flashbulb memories comes from frequent rehearsal and reworking after the event.
Running Head: INVESTIGATING YOUR OWN MENTAL MODELS “Investigating Your Own Mental Models” Running Head: INVESTIGATING YOUR OWN MENTAL MODELS 1. 1. Describe the mental model thoroughly, including its origins, how long it has been established, conversations you have heard about it, etc. According to Hrepic (2011), “wider studies of mental model definitions show that no consensus exists about the definition of the term mental model and “some definitions of the concept are even contradictory.” “Canas and Antol”, believe the main reason for disagreements in the definition of the mental model is that the term has been used by researchers who work in different fields and who focused on its different aspects. However, “Van der Veer” believes that although there is no agreement about the exact definition of the concept, in general, “mental model” refers to the internal representations that people form of the environment through their interaction with it”(p. 1).