Hitler targeted 10-18 years as he saw these as the future of Germany, this importance of this system is shown with the quote “He alone, who owns the youth, gains the future”. Hitler was clearly intent on ensuring the Nazi regime lasted and therefore targeted the young. The Hitler Youth focused on things such as Nazi heroes, the Jewish threat and the greatness of the Fuhrer. Despite the Hitler Youth aiming to restrict opposition, opposition grew with groups such as the swing movement who boycotted and later attacked the Hitler Youth. This showed that, the aims of the social policy, creation of the 1000 year Reich would prove more difficult than Hitler first thought.
During the war he became a prominent writer of “Exileliteratur”, showing his opposition to the National Socialist and Fascist movements through his famous plays : “Leben des Galilei”, “Der gute Mensch von Sezuan”, “Der aufhatsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui”, “Der Kaukasische Kreidekreis”, “ Furcht und Elend des Dritten Reiches” and last but not least “Mutter Courage und ihre Kinder” written in 1939 considered to be one of the greatest anti-war play of all time having as a protagonist a woman, Anna Fierling also known as “Mutter Courage”. Bertolt Brecht is known best for not following “Eine Aristotelische Dramatik” (Suhrkamp Verlag – “Schriften zum Theater”), but creating a new concept of the 20th century theatre by the creation of a fourth wall which separates the stage and the actors performing the play from the audience. The spectators are now able to experience a new type of directing a play never attempted before. It is as if they would actually simulate a time machine which can allow them to share the same feelings and emotions as
Modern European History – David Welch Evidence of anti-Semitism being propagated by powerful interest groups before 1914, such as the Pan- German League, helps to substantiate the argument put forward by historians that stresses the role of traditional elites and the continuities in social structures and ideology linking imperial Germany with the Nazi era. Kaiser Wilhelm’s claim that G had become a world power on the basis of an imperial fleet that could challenge the Royal Navy was enthusiastically received. However, his successes in foreign policy were li8mt, and the price paid in the self-inflicted isolation of G and the forming of an alliance by its rivals- Britain, France and Russia. On the surface, France, which remained the sole republican state among the great powers of Europe, presented a picture of political instability. For many, general Boulanger provided the focus for a new sense of nationalism based on military glory, he advocated that Alsace- Lorraine (surrendered by France to German empire- 1871) should be returned to France.
Julio Serrano EN-102 Prof. Ignacio Arana 4-22-09 Fascism: Unity through Power In our modern times, the word “Fascism” makes allusion to a specific period of time, in the last century, when the world was submerged in struggles and war. Although, this term is surrounded by controversy, the theoretical government created by the Fascist ideology could be a model to follow in different conditions. The Fascist movement rose at the beginning of the 20th century, and created a nationalist system using unity through strength. Fascism is often confused with racism, because radical fascist ideas suggest that strength is a quality of superior races. For a better analysis of the topic it is necessary to understand the theory of Fascism, its roots, the people, and how it has influenced the 20th century.
The dominating presence of German Expressionism was made possible through the movement’s exaggeration of mise-en-scene, which simply means everything that a scene is composed of. The exaggeration of mise-en-scene was done by emphasizing “harsh, bold graphics and revelatory distortions” (Mast, 2012); effectively contorting the audience’s logic and perception of reality. Emphasis of bold graphics and exaggeration of mise-en-scene is quite notably evident in the 1920 film, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was the first attempt to film an entirely Expressionist universe, and a very successful attempt at that. Within the scenes of the film, the audience is subjected to disproportionate, diagonal staircases, trees with hellishly spiky leaves, and grass resembling the blades of knives.
Antonin Artaud supported the same theory but instead of choosing politics as the main theme of the play, he preferred religious themes. Artaud introduced the theatre of cruelty which its cruelty laid in showing the audience the type of truth that they don’t want to see. Another successful theatre that marked the characteristics of the postwar era is the ensemble theatre. It is a continuum of Artaud's theory; however, this time the theatre design is more open and the dialogue is less important than what the actors do on stage. Some of the popular techniques of postwar theatre were memory scenes, dream sequences, and the use of symbolic characters ("Drama and Dramatic Arts").
The most important conclusion Shakespeare has drawn about the nature of humanity in King Lear is the fact that evil is not something the gods have cursed you with at birth but it is something that you choose for yourselfACt . The contrast he uses shows us that Edmoud had everything he needed to be good, he had the look and he had the attitude , but ultimately he chose to wrong path, he was blinded by power and his need to be treated as an equal. Later in that scene  after his brother is wounded Edgar affirms his belief that the gods play no hand in the evilness of the world through his dialogue “The gods are just, and of our pleasant vices make instruments to plague us” he states that the gods are fair and only punish us with our own wrong doings, even Edmoud agrees with him. Edmonds good side does make an appearance, towards the end of act 5 scene 3, “ Despite of mine own nature. Quickly send – be brief in it – to th’castle; for my wit is on the life of Lear and Cordelia” , in this remorseful dialogue Edmond`
Scientific racism, social Darwinism and eugenics at the 1936 Berlin Olympics The 1936 events in the Berlin Olympics perfectly illustrate the Nazi policies of scientific racism, social Darwinism and eugenics in action. In his paper, The Nazi Olympics 1936, Patrick B. Miller points out the significance of the IOC awarding the 1936 games to Germany. This was an attempt to bring Germany back into the world community after its defeat in World War 1. The year was 1931 and Nazism was taking shape in Germany. With Hitler being appointed as chancellor in 1933, the path towards the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games became bound into Hitler’s policies which included scientific racism, social Darwinism and eugenics.
Due to this, Brecht created the concept of epic theatre, where the individual character is less important than a social or political message put forth by the author. The invention of the concept of epic theatre was revolutionary, as most theatres made use of the theme of naturalism, which was conventional, and the norm. I learned that Ibsen believed that naturalism was a ‘slavish imitation of life,’ and he sought to liberate modern theatre from this kind of concept by using the concept of detachment; he felt as though the audience would not truly understand the message he was trying to convey through the play if they did not feel as though they were detached from it. I learned that the detachment effect is known as the alienation effect, or as the Verfremdungseffekt (V-effect), and that it is used primarily to distance the audience from emotion so that they do not lose themselves in the character that the author created, and instead become conscious and detached critics of the play who are not swayed by the character’s emotions. Mother Courage’s character in his play “Mother Courage and her Children” makes use of the alienation effect
Romanticism is defined as a movement opposite to Classicism which shifted Western attitudes in relation to art and human creativity (Brians). The movement started as a response to the Enlightenment. Based on the rejection of previous societal rules, its foundation was built on the response to emotion over reason. Pure logic and rationalism were deemed insufficient to solve the present problems. Among the romantic ideals, self-expression played a key role.