Being a criminal or deviant could be seen to be a social construct and therefore this may mean that you could question what criminal activity is and whether this social construct is even right since it has been constructed by members of the society. The laws of the society have also constructed the norms and values of society and therefore if someone were to go against that they would be seen to be criminal however, this may differ in other parts of the world because what may be criminal and deviant in our society may be seen to be the norm in another. The labelling theory helps us to understand why people commit crimes and why people end up being deviant within the community. One reason may be that this stereotypical view or pre-judgement enables people to self-fulfil their prophecy and therefore creates criminal for example. Someone who comes from poor background and where’s hoodies does not automatically mean that they could be deviant.
As explained in item a, the labelling theory explains how actions become labelled as criminal or deviant. The labelling theory explains how crime and deviance is a social construct as the laws and norms are constructed by society. The theory can be seen as useful in explaining crime and deviance yet this can be disputed. First of all, the labelling theory aims to answer the question, why and how people get labelled. One researcher found that police made decisions on whether to arrest youth based on their physical cues.
Outline and evaluate functionalist explanations of crime and deviance Crime and deviance can be defined as behaviour which breaks the law or goes against society's norms and values. Downes and Rock defined deviance as behavior which may be considered as banned or controlled behavior which is likely to attract disapproval or punishment. Crime is harder to define, however Pease (2002) defined crime and deviance as an action that is deemed so disturbing by citizens or disruptive to society that state intervention is justified. The macro perspective of Functionalism sees society working like the human body, this is described through the organic analogy. The agents of socialization work together to form equilibrium within society.
How is Deterrence Related to Humiliation? Abstract Deterrence is a method punishment where the public general ‘deter’ or discourage the criminal offenders from committing crimes. In today society theirs two types of deterrence that exists, general and specific. The specific deterrence argues that by punishing an individual for the unacceptable crime they committed will stop them from repeating this crime all over again, and maybe this will be seen as a lesson for the offender future. General deterrence is a punishment which aims to the whole society from committing similar crimes.
Many people ask, why does crime occur, who commits the crimes and why. We also ask the question of whether or not economic class, race, ect, has anything to do with why crime occurs. Theories have been conjured upon these acts to try to give meaning on why, what happens takes place. In this essay I would like to take the time to explain these theories to help others understand and maybe change their own viewpoints. Crime can affect the way individuals perceive others generally creating bias and prejudice within a person’s frame of thought; hopefully we can make someone think a little differently.
There are different theories on how crime and deviance are viewed. Functionalist theorists see crime and deviance as necessary due to society being dependent on each group of society to perform actions necessary for survival (Burke.H.R 2009:346). Interactionism theorists believe crime and deviance are judged by society and the severity of the crime and deviant behaviour is judged by how civilization reacts to it (S.Cook 2012). Following on from the Interactionalists theory crime and deviance are relative concepts as they change through time and in different countries. For example women voting used to be illegal, now it is legal in most countries.
Using materials like anti-climb paint or neighbourhood watch schemes they make the target harder to achieve, or more risky. This process is called target hardening. An advantage of this is that it directly influences the criminal by allowing them to stop and think about the real consequences to their actions. Another concept that right realists believe should be implemented is a zero tolerance policy. A zero tolerance policy is a tough system of policing that was put into practice in New York, USA, in which even minor offences are punished.
I want to bring up specific deterrence. Specific deterrence is where a young offender is punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal actions. In today’s society we focus more so on reforming the youthful offender. If we were to aim the focus at disciplining the offender perhaps they would learn from their crimes. Offenders in this society know or at least thinks that they will only get a smack on the wrist if they were to commit a crime.
There must be a punishment for the crime committed to deter it. According to the differential association theory “punishment, if certain, should be swift and proportionate to the crime to deter it.” (O’Grady 2010:70) That the punishment should fit the crime committed. Though, this could be seen as a great way to deter crime, it does not work as well. According to Fagan and Meares “…recent experiments have shown that among persons of color, especially those who are poor or reside in poor neighborhoods, punishment has produced iatrogenic or counterdeterrent effects.” (Fagan and Meares 2008:8)The punishment seems to be the more upset people in the community become and it results in the same crime happening in the communities and that once offenders come out of jail it has been proven that they are likely to commit crime again if, they were in jail for a short period of
Explain the tension between community interests & individual rights and freedoms within then criminal justice system.? Crime is defined as an act or omission committed against the community at large that is punishable by the state. It is a constantly changing area so it can reflect upon societies changing values. The tension within the criminal justice system explores whether the rights of an individual should be infringed to protect a community so they feel safe. In relation to crime, the idea of tension is an issue due to the conflicting demands between the victim, accused and society.