Examine the Effectiveness of Crime Prevention Strategies in Reducing Crime.

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Although theories like functionalism and Marxism focus on the causes of crime, realists also look at the ways we can prevent crime from happening. Realists trust official statistics and both left and right realists have come up with a variety of solutions to fight crime. Right realists think that situational crime prevention or SCP. They reason that intervening in the immediate situation where crime is taking place is the one of the best things to be done. Using materials like anti-climb paint or neighbourhood watch schemes they make the target harder to achieve, or more risky. This process is called target hardening. An advantage of this is that it directly influences the criminal by allowing them to stop and think about the real consequences to their actions. Another concept that right realists believe should be implemented is a zero tolerance policy. A zero tolerance policy is a tough system of policing that was put into practice in New York, USA, in which even minor offences are punished. This means even crimes that are seen as minor like littering are taken more seriously and the penalty for doing so is stricter. The benefit of this is that in New York City, there was a huge percentage drop in the crime rate – 68% over a 6-8 year period. However, with both of these policies there is a concern of crime displacement, which means that if criminals see that crime cannot be committed in one are because of the risk, they merely move to another area. This has been referred to as an ‘urban apartheid’ in which the rich are protected but the poor are left in crime-ridden ghettos. Left realists take a less aggressive approach to reducing crime. They believe that it is extremely important to tackle social deprivation and intervene early, and so advocate for facilities like sure start children’s centres, and youth leisure activities to divert potential offenders from

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