Entwistle (2010) describes five models for integration: Enemies, Spies, Colonists, Neutral Parties, and Allies. Enemies believe, that faith and reason cannot be in agreement. Christian combatants believe that the Bible is the one truth while secular combatants believe science is the one truth. Spies do not accept the tenets of Christianity but see activities such as prayer or forgiveness as useful to the secular world. Colonists are religious advocates who engage the scientific community in an effort to convert others to their way of life.
4-Mat Review of Entwistle’s Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Karen Cauthen Liberty University Summary David Entwistle’s Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity interrogates then responds to, “What tangible difference does it make in one’s life and practice to be a psychologist who is a devoted follower of Christ?” and “Is integration necessary?” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 17). Entwistle challenges readers to examine self worldviews, as well as, those of others by considering “What does it mean to be a person? What is the nature of the world? What’s wrong with the world and why do things go wrong? How can what is wrong with the world and what is wrong with my life, be fixed?” (Entwistle, 2010, p. 68).
Dr. Anderson displays a strong foundation of counseling through truth and having a relationship with Christ. Other web based articles were used to support the theory of Anderson’s book. Although the web based articles other different avenues of Christian counseling all of the sources used share a common root, how to show others how to overcome their problems to become healthy well adjusted individuals by using biblical concepts. Christian Counseling to the Spiritually Oppressed Discipleship is receiving instruction from a religious leader and being a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher. Discipleship in today’s world can be in the form of a Christian counseling.
A Critique of Crabb and Hawkins Effective Biblical Counseling by Dr. Larry Crabb and Model for the Counseling Process by Dr. Ron Hawkins Sheila Borrero Liberty University This paper will compare and contrast the theories of Dr. Larry Crabb’s Effective Biblical Counseling and Dr. Ron Howard’s Model for Guiding the Counseling Process, by highlighting the similarities and differences. The paper will include a summary of the theories, and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses, along with my personal reflection and application. It is important to remember that the way people approach problems significantly differs, as do the approaches therapists use to aid their clients through the growth and healing process. Summary of Theories Dr. Larry Crabb provides four different approaches that are used by Christians when integrating psychology and theology. The approaches are named: “Separate but Equal”, “Tossed Salad”, “Nothing Buttery”, and “Spoiling the Egyptians”.
Critique of Two Theories: Nouthetic Counseling Vs. Misbelief Therapy Sandra Hanford Liberty University Summary Dr. Adams (1986) opens his book, How To Help People Change, by stating that all counselors agree on “the aim of counseling is to change people” (p. xi). The main difference is the question is what the people are supposed to change into. Each theorist has a different answer to that question. Coming from the perspective of a Christian, Dr. Adams (1986) suggests that the central issue of change centers on the process of changing the human heart. The Holy Spirit is important in causing the change and the Word of God is the source of helping the client to become Christ -like.
McMinn (2011) suggests that Christian counselors should challenge the majority worldview and reinforce the Christian doctrine. However, the Christian counselor should not be quick to dismiss the secular worldview that stands on the basis of scientific evidence, but find a way to successfully integrate the two. McMinn (2011) indicates that there are also new challenges in defining Christian counseling. Many clients are confused as what Christian counseling really entails (McMinn, 2011). This confusion only further magnified because a majority of religious interventions are not widely accepted by the American Psychological Association due to their lack of scientific foundation (McMinn, 2011).
A 4-MAT Review: Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Bruce E. Johnson Liberty University Summary David Entwistle (2010) in his book Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity, examines the struggle between psychology and Christianity. Entwistle accomplishes this by looking at the historical tension between the two areas, examining each of the schools of thought in relation to human development, and promoting the belief that the two schools may be viewed as complementary and not as polar opposites. This belief system appears to be based on the beliefs of Harry Blamires who discusses the difference in secular thinking and Christian thinking. Entwistle states “Blamires helps us to see that we can learn from ‘secular’ sources while framing our thinking with a Christian worldview and applying knowledge with Christian concern” (Entwistle, 2010). It is from this point that Entwistle begins his discussion into the topic of integration with these two distinct fields that appear to be worlds apart.
Running head: COUNSELING AND THE BIBLE Counseling and the Bible: A Comparison and Contrast With Secular Counseling Jennifer Scott Liberty University Abstract Based on a thorough biblical word search, this paper compares and contrasts biblically-based counseling and secular counseling. It discusses the implications for a Christian counselor when trained in a secular psychological world. A personal application will be presented after the comparison and contrast are thoroughly explored. Counseling and the Bible: A Comparison and Contrast With Secular Counseling This paper is a thorough examination of counseling words based on a biblical word search. The words studied are counsel, advise, heal, and wisdom.
Quite a few approaches have been used to identify the connection between psychology and Christianity. This book should be used to help readers become aware of the belief backgrounds that every one of us brings to these issues, and to help readers analytically assess the assumptions that they bring to the discussion. The author wants us to assess and weigh up models for connecting Christianity and psychology (Entwilstel, 2010).Another goal of the book is to aid readers in how to verbalize their personal perception of how best to speak to the relationship of psychology and Christianity. In addition the author wants to assist the people who read this book to base the debate about this association in the context of worldview and truth-seeking issues that are a requirement to scholarly integration, but which are rarely discussed. The author presents different psychological and theological approaches to Christian counseling.
Running head: Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity Andrea Reid Liberty University David Entwistle’s book Integrative Approaches to Psychology and Christianity: An Introduction to Worldview Issues, Philosophical Foundations, and Model of Integration (2010) is in regards to the history of faith and science. The perception of whether Christianity and psychology can co-mingle with having different views but both disclosing the same goal and understanding the past and how worldviews and discipline has shaped civilization. As we take this enlightening journey through history of coming full circle we must take a look at Christianity and Psychology and its meaning. “For Christian, Christianity provides a worldview from which to understand the nature of the world and the nature of humanity” (p. 11) and the “Psychology functions as a science only as it uses the scientific method in application to its subject” (p. 41). Entwistle would like his readers to mediate on what appears to be a conflict between psychology and Christianity dating back to 1543 when Nicholaus Copernicus published “De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium” referring to the theory heliocentric and 1612 when Galileo revisited the heliocentric theory before being barred in 1616 of his teachings.