Sarah Boillin CRJS101 -1303A-10 Foundations of Criminal Justice Unit 1 Individual Project Due Date: 7/28/2013 In the criminal justice system there are a number of roles that are assigned to people who play a part in the investigative and prosecutorial process. Those roles include, a police officer or federal agent, the district attorney’s office or United Stated Attorney’s Office, the defense counsel, and federal, state, and local judges. They each play a part in interacting with a criminal defendant. A police officer takes part in the investigative role, which lies between the defendant being arrested and being proven guilty or innocent of the crime accused of the defendant committing. The duty of a police officer is to enforce the law, investigate the crime that has been committed, apprehend the offender, reduce and prevent crime from occurring, maintain public order, ensure community safety, provide emergency and related community services and protect fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals.” (Schmalleger, F., 2012, chapter 1 page 10).
In the ancient Roman Republic, a complex political system was in place. Much like America, it was an indirect representative democracy. It also had a system of checks and balances, a way to accommodate two social classes, and set terms for every office. Romans system of government pushed politicians like Sulla and Marius to the extremes. Maintaining ones office was hard enough in Rome, but Roman culture
The Roman Empire had territories governed by army generals and governors to help maintain regions in the Roman Empire, as well as senators to be in assistance to the citizens of the district. The Han Dynasty had a well-organized bureaucracy with set governors and bureaucrats running different regions of Asia just like the Roman Empire. Rome and Han had very comparable size and scale of their regions, but were different in which part of the land they had ruled, Rome had ruled lands all along the seacoast of the Mediterranean while the Han Dynasty ruled vast landmass and used their rivers for trade. Both the empires used violent conquest to unite their empire into one bigger empire. On the economic side both empires depended on agriculture as the bases of their economics.
The “Dark Figure of Crime” is the amount of underreported as well as unreported criminal crimes that society does not report to authority. In this case, unreported crimes do not make it to the statistics of official crime. One believes that some people in society are hesitant to report a crime to police for numerous reasons. These reasons can be because of the act of negative criminal behavior from one individual to another. A few common unreported crimes that deal with negative sexual related criminal behavior toward another individual are visible.
For a society or country to govern itself it has to have some sort of law to control the people. This leads us to the code of Hammurabi and the roman twelve tables which were very similar and different in the way they enforced their laws, the time period the laws were enforced, the lenience towards crimes and how it influenced other societies and the present world The Code of Hammurabi of Mesopotamia and the Roman republic’s twelve tables were two of the earliest and most successful written low codes. Without these two written codes our law systems today might have been altered. These two codes were very different but had few similarities in certain ways. Both of these codes were originally created to regulate society and keep balance in the world.
With countries having their own set of laws some different in every country and to their cultures. Some have the death penalty and some have fines, it just depends on what went on in the situation. The Code of Hammurabi was the first known set of laws in 1780 BC and the second known set of laws were the Roman Twelve Tables in 450 BC. These laws were created in the Mesopotamian era, and they were most successful. These laws are what we have used to create the laws today, without having the Code of Hammurabi and The Roman Twelve Tables; the rules today could have been completely different.
However, there are also a lot of difference between the two empires. The Persian Empire had a king which the Roman Empire did everything but have one. The Persian Empire had four different social groups while the Roman Empire had two classes. The Roman Empire let all people had some sort of power while the Persian Empire did not. From these two different empires, our society has became what it is today.
Aqueducts enabled the Romans to grow in many different aspects including the size of their empires and their army. I think it is impossible to argue that the Romans had a direct impact on the entire world. Today most of us (with the exception of third world countries) have fresh tap water to use for drinking and cooking, clean water to bathe in, and an effective sewage system. Aqueducts today run on a lot of the basics derived from those established by the Romans. Although the Romans were far ahead of their time, they were not perfect.
The defendant’s race is considered in terms of whether this was a same race crime or whether the victim was of a different race. If a defendant was black and killed a white person, he is approximately twice as likely to receive the death penalty, than if the defendant was white and killed a black person. “A close examination of these types of cases revealed that the seemingly anomalous executions could be explained by the presence of a low-status defendant and/or a high status victim.” This is because the “death penalty is less likely to be imposed for a low status victims, defined by low-skill occupation, unemployment, criminal behavior and/or record, gang membership, public housing, dilapidated nonpublic housing, dropping out of high school, and mental retardation.” Never the less, the justice system seems to be a bit prejudice in it