Although Henry did eventually get his Heir to crown it didn’t happen till’ Edward VI in 1537. This means that Henry’s biggest and most important aim was technically a failure during the early years of his reign. Another important goal that Henry VIII wanted to achieve in the early years of his Reign was to bring Honour and Glory to England and for him to be known as a true English warrior to the rest of Europe. Henry did somewhat achieve this goal with his wars with France and Scotland. The battle of the Spurs (1513) and the Battle of Flodden (1513), although to some considered small skirmishes, did make the countries of Europe start to notice England as a possible threat and certainly now knew about Henry VIII.
This might have been seen as being selfish to other countries, which is why other nations eventually started taxing goods from France. Minimizing imports was not the only measure France took to keep their money. They also built a large navy to protect against smugglers. The actions taken because of Colbert’s Mercantil system made France very wealthy, and eventually was adopted in all parts of the world to create wealth. The surpluses of money that Mercantilism creates still finance wars all around the globe in the 21st Century, and it is amazing that Colbert invented it back in the 17th Century.
This law kept money in the empire but hurt the pockets of the wealthy colonists mercantilist that depended on the shipping trade. Then when the French Indian War ended the King made them keep the treaties that had been made with the Indians and refused the rich merchants the right to expand and claim more land. The war had also left England in debt as most wars do, so England called on the colonist to pay taxes to help with their own defense. They did not single the American colonist out they asked this of all of their subjects in all the colonies under English rule. So in 1767 England passed the Townshend Acts which included the Revenue Act of 1767, the Indemnity Act, the Commissioners of Customs Act, the Vice Admiralty Court Act, and the New York Restraining Act.
Necker put a stop to the rebellion in the Dauphiné by legalizing its assembly, and then set to work to arrange for the summons of the Estates-General of 1789. He advocated doubling the representation of the Third Estate to satisfy the people. But he failed to address the matter of voting — rather than voting by head count, which is what the people wanted, voting remained as one vote for each estate. Also, his address at the Estates-General was terribly miscalculated: it lasted for hours, and while those present expected a reforming policy to save the nation, he gave them financial data. This approach had serious repercussions on Necker's reputation; he appeared to consider the Estates-General to be a facility designed to help the administration rather than to reform
The reform of finance and administration was the most important factor for Pitt’s domination of politics 1783-93 how far do you agree? On one had there is a strong suggestion that Pitts earlier political domination was made entirely by his skill as an administrator and financing his government. But the political situation at the time meant that there were many disadvantages facing him from very early on, hence the nickname the “mince pie” administration. There were many ways in which Pitt conquered over such problems like the Whigs and support within the Commons and the way he improved it, but what is the most important factor in his domination. Pitt from early on was a highly successful at implicating financial and administrative policies
However, wars generally led to very expensive costs to the country. Henry's father, Henry VII, left the country in quite a stable state economically, but Henry devoted most of England's money into his campaigns to take over France, because he believed had a right to the Throne. To some extent source 4 supports the idea that the foreign policy did fail due to the lack of resources, because it states that “the young warrior family accepted the fact that royal finances could not support a repetition of the campaign of 1513”. This quote implies that the lack of resources seems to be the dominant reason for stopping Henry from invading France and therefore source 4 supports the statement to some extent. In source 4 we also learn that much must have depended on diplomatic relations with Maximilian and Ferdinand, however Henry’s allies proved unfaithful and unreliable.
France got affected economically which made the people of France lose hope on monarch. The enlightenment was a more important cause because without that the people would have not thought the American Revolution as a big turning point. The critical thinking that the enlightenment bought about caused the people to look at it from another
One of Henry VIII’s main aims when he came to power was to be as different from his father as possible, and this is what led him to make many of his decisions during the first few years of his reign. Henry’s personal ambition was to invade and take the throne of France; he wanted the fame and glory that came with winning battles and taking over countries. Adding to this, Henry wanted to become a huge part of Europe, trying to form alliances, sign treaties and claim status. Henry knew that if he was going to take over France he would need powerful allies as France was becoming powerful itself, was becoming wealthy and gaining military strength. His last aim was the succession.
By the time he arrived in France, the French had had some victories in Egypt and this boosted Napoleon’s popularity. The Directory tried to punish him for desertion but they were too weak and Napoleon proceeded to work against them and seized power from them. Napoleon then engineered his election as First Consul in 1800 which made him the most powerful person in France. This created the platform for him to appoint himself as Emperor. Conclusion In conclusion, whilst the Campaigns were pivotal opportunities for Napoleon to make his name and increase his popularity and heroism, this by itself was not enough to make him the most powerful person in France by 1800.
I personally think that Henry failed in his foreign policy because he didn’t end up gaining a full grasp on France, this was the main precedence. The initial aim was to capture more land, gaining more land meaning capturing France and knowing Henry’s ambitious mindset, he most probably had his whole mind set on creating an empire and France was a good place to start. Had Henry been what he said he was ‘a warrior king’ he wouldn’t have been used as a toy twice throughout this unsuccessful foreign policy. Charles took advantage of Henry. At the Battle of Pavia, the French were defeated and Francis along with his strongest supporters were held captive.