It is not accurate to say that the most important result of the collectivisation of agriculture was that it imposed communist control on the country side. Stalin’s main aim was to collectivise agriculture which in turn would increase industrialisation and would mean that Russia was no longer behind Western nations. Collectivisation did benefit the development of Russian industry as the large farms increased efficiency meaning fewer people were needed and farms and more people were available to work in industry and accelerate industrialisation. This is evidenced by the fact that by 1939 50% of the population was working class and 19 million had left the countryside for the city to escape famine and find work. As well as this collectivisation doubled the amount of grain production in the years 1928 to 1935 meaning more grain was exported.
This was all thanks to Russia’s finance minister Sergei Witte. He tried to bring Russia’s economy up to the standards with the rest of Europe as they were seen as backwards compared to other countries. The best way he saw this was through industrialization. This is because the market was heavily controlled by the state and the development of heavy industry allowed for a fast catch-up, rapidly covering the 'gap' that existed in the country's economy. Besides all this such industrialization improved the overall military capability of Russia.
He invited foreign experts from more industrialised countries, such as Britain, France and Germany to Russia to advise him on modernisation. He realised that he would have to have policies that would allow individual business people to start factories and encourage metalwork. His policies were successful, because industrial growth increased on average by 8% a year between 1890 and 1899, which was the highest growth rate of any of the world’s major economies. When Witte placed more emphasis on industrialisation, it meant that more jobs were created in towns and cities, this allowed Serfs to come from rural areas in the hope of a better way of life, which
The Trans-Siberian railway was started in 1891; this was a massive improvement to the economy because it opened up the Eastern Empire and advanced the growth of new towns and cities, whilst connecting new industrial centres which helped to stimulate the growth of iron and coal industries. In the case of foreign investment, Witte put the rouble on the gold standard which encouraged other countries to invest heavily in Russian industry. These policies had some beneficial outcomes such as heavy industry saw massive increases in production, and the economy grew 8% per year in the 1890’s, however, arguably there were also negative impacts of Witte’s policies. The Trans-Siberian railway was only partially built and therefore only the major cities were interconnected. Also in order to provide money for industrial developments, taxes were raised which squeezed the peasants and therefore made them penniless to buy consumer goods, resulting in the economy of Russia itself to stagnate.
The impact of Lenin and Stalin's policies on the rights of the Russian people Stalin: The First Five- Year Plans (1928-1933) Stalin believed that a strong economy needed a strong country. He felt that industrialization was the key to achieving this strength and was convinced that the peasant class needed to accept socialism. Stalin preferred the economic policies of War Communism. He felt Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) had diluted socialism, but he was nervous about losing the support of the peasants who benefited from the NEP and wanted to unite them with the working class. The launch of the first Five-Year Plan and a collectivization drive dramatically reversed the NEP model.
This could be because of two things: the war or the unsustainability of his policies. First of all, the war would have most definitely affected coal output as lots of workers would have been taken from their workstations and drafted into the army. On the other hand, it is more likely that the dip from 35.4 million tonnes to 33.8 million tonnes is a consequence of his loans from foreign investors, such as Britain. This is supported by the rate of industrial growth in Russia from 1890-99 the annual average growth rate was 8% an increase from 6.1% in the years 1885-89 but, 1900-06 it was 1.4% a severe decrease, which can
Russian agriculture was clearly improving. However, these developments were severely disrupted by the First World War. Some historians argued that had war not broken out, Russia could have developed a more stable, loyal and prosperous peasantry. This could suggest that World War I stopped the developments of Russia profoundly, and thus, could be a potential cause of the February Revolution. A lot of workers went on strike for better working conditions, in February 1905, there were 400,000 people striking, however, by the end of 1905, 2.7 million were striking.
The collectivisation of agriculture provided Stalin with the idea that further industrial growth was necessary in order to fuel the country’s economy and diminish the burden of Russia’s backwards nature. He wanted Russia to become self-sufficient and not have to rely on the West for anything so the first 5 year plan was established in the hope that changes could be made. It can be perceived that the first plan did not achieve a great deal but
This helped modernise society as the hierarchy within Russia became weaker making slightly more like other countries at the time. Another change in society occurred within the system of patronage too, in that, the working and middle classes began to grow. This was because there were more factories being built (often by foreign companies) which led to more jobs and in turn, more money. This increase in factories was all due to protective tariffs, put in place by Russia’s minister of finance (from 1893 -1903) - Sergei Witte. The tariffs restricted the
The USSR thereafter fought alongside the Allies. Germany was defeated due largely in part to the reorganization of the Russian military’s tank and air divisions, an increase in intelligence and communication, bettered training regimens for officers and a swift increase in technological prowess. The reorganization of the military was made to resemble German panzer divisions and the German Luftwaffe (air force). The ability for Russia to bear the war’s demand on resources was buoyed due to the Russian workforce’s ability to quickly adapt to a command economy—this was ensured mainly by the pre-war economic planning which the USSR implemented. The political scene in the USSR also changed for the better during the war—while initially the military reported directly to the Kremlin, Stalin soon appointed an able-bodied leader to the military, Marshal Zhukov, and this allowed the military greater flexibility and, in turn, greater success in battle.