To achieve self- sufficiency: • Stalin wanted to make the USSR less dependent – especially on Western manufactured goods. • It was important that the USSR had a strong industrial base to produce the goods people needed. • He wanted to make Russia more self-sufficient and less dependent. To increase grain supplies: • Stalin wanted to end the dependence of the economy on a backward agricultural system – he did not want the new socialist state to depend on the peasantry for agricultural supplies. To move towards a socialist society: • According to Marxist theory, socialism could only be created in a society where the majority of the population were workers – but in 1928, only 20% were workers in the USSR.
To what extent did collectivisation improve Soviet agriculture in the years 1928-41? Along with Stalin’s policy of industrialisation came widespread changes in agriculture. It was seen by Stalin as necessary to improve Russia’s agriculture, modernising it in order to create food surpluses that could be exported, therefore fuelling his Five Year plan. The policy of Collectivisation, in which larger agricultural units were created ensuring peasants would farm collectively rather than on individual farms, was seen as the solution to improving Russia’s agriculture, which had been left largely unchanged since the 1917 revolution. However, it proved deeply unpopular with the peasants, and although it allowed Stalin and the party to finally gain control over the workers in the countryside, it had devastating effects on this section of the Russian population.
.” (Document 9) As shown by charts illustrating both industrial and agricultural growth (Document s 2, 3, 6), Stalin’s economic venues helped Russia to become a modern industrial society and let to Russia’s rise to a world power. Also the focus on heavy industry made to help increase the grandeur of the state. Under a command economy, in which the government controls all decisions made concerning the economy and personal lives, Russia with no doubt grew strong. Stalin said “To slow down would mean falling behind. And those who fall behind are beaten.
Essay Notes How far were the economic problems responsible for Stalin’s decision to replace the New Economic Policy in 1928 with the First Five Year Plan? Introduction –The question is focused on the economic policies pursued by the government in the 1920s and the reasons behind the dramatic changes in 1928. Were the reasons purely economic or must other factors be taken into account? Development • Why did Stalin stop supporting the NEP and start supporting rapid industrialisation? • Did the NEP really fail or did it suit Stalin to make it look as though it had?
How far did the aims and key features of the Five-Year Plans change in the years 1928-41? Aims and features changed: * Aimed originally to catch up with the Western economies that were about 100 years ahead of the USSR. * To manufacture weapons in order to defend against invasion from capitalist countries. * Aimed to continue socialism as it was believed socialism could only exist in a highly industrialised nation. * Aimed to improve conditions for the working class as Stalin believed the revolution was a working class one, and had seen how the peasants prospered but the working class did not under the NEP.
How far were the divisions over the continuation over the NEP responsible for the contest to succeed Lenin in the years 1924- 1928? Divisions over the continuation of the NEP: • The party split into 2 sides- Behind Trotsky or Bukharin. • Bukharin wanted to keep the NEP- Felt it should continue for a while because it was providing food for the cities and work for the proletariat. Bukharin told the peasants to enrich themselves and buy goods to promote the USSR’s industry. He believed there should be a smychka (alliance) between peasants and workers (didn’t want to create differences between them.)
An outstanding individual involved in Russia’s development was Sergei Witte. As minister of finance from 1892 to 1903 he set himself the huge task of modernising the Russian economy to compete with the advanced nations of the West. It was Witte’s belief that modernisation could be achieved only through state capitalism. He was impressed by the results of the industrial revolutions in the West, and argued that the same ideas could successfully modernise Russia. However, given the backwardness of the Russian economy particular difficulties were presented.
The Labour economy policies are also a reason why they lost. Gaitskell promised to increase public spending without increasing taxes. This put his credibility under question. Another reason is that although voters were happy with the nationalisation of electricity, gas, atomic energy and airline industries they thought public ownership of coal and the railways had been a failure when they were last in government and there was little enthusiasm for further nationalisation which Labour was committed to by Clause Four of the Labour Party Constitution. Another reason why Conservatives won is that in there manifesto they promised to stabilise the cost of living which would close the gap between rich and poor and double everyone’s standard of living.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal vs. Barack Obama's Economic Stimulus Plan Aiding the economy was what both of these plans were meant for. Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal aided the American economy to get back on track during the 1930's. Due to the economy suffering severely from the great depression this plan was setup to help boast and get the economy going. Barack Obama's Stimulus Plan was also and aid brought out to save the economy. Due to the country facing the biggest economic crisis since the second world war, Obama and Democratic Party leaders suggested an economic stimulus package to confront the crisis.
The population was estimated to have dropped 50-60%, so the prices of goods rapidly dropped, since there were so few people still alive to buy it. The lower levels of the social chain, like the peasants, serfs, farmers, and factory workers were struck the hardest. (Pollama) Since their living and work conditions were not very sanitary, and their living spaces were often cramped and dirty, they were the easiest targets for the plague. All of the jobs that these people had were now open, and available for people to take. Since the serf population had gotten ridiculously low, plantation owners were forced to start paying workers to tend the farms.