The decrease in agricultural production also affected the soviet government. Since 1921, Russia’s government had been selling grain surpluses abroad in order to gain foreign currency necessary to provide resources for industrialisation. Clearly, if there were no grain surpluses there was no money to build up Russia’s industry. Collectivisation aimed to hold out the prospect of many economic benefits. First, large farms would increase efficiency.
The failure of NEP was not the main reason why collectivisation was introduced, but to a number of other factors. Such as, Stalin wanting to make agriculture in the countryside more productive, by giving people an incentive to work and to work together. Also in making Russia more communist, the farms being state owned, and anyone not communist got rid of, e.g. Kulaks and Nepmen who did well off NEP. To raise funds (from the grain) to help assist industrialisation, creating capital investment and overall to increase Stalin and the party’s power also by getting rid of opposition e.g.
How Successful was Alexander II’s emancipation of the Serfs? In 1861, the Russian Tsar Alexander II emancipated the Serfs. He felt that this change was necessary to lead Russia to become one of the major powers and remove Russia’s tag of being a very backward country. Overall, the Emancipation of the serfs was to a very large extent not successful, however there were some improvements in Russian society, most notably economically and morally. One of the key reasons Alexander II emancipated the Serfs was due to the fact that he wanted to improve the economy, which was struggling.
The key to economic power in Russia was agriculture. When Russia’s agriculture was turning out to look like a disaster, Alexander III as the Tsar made a difference by introducing new laws. He created Peasant Land Banks where peasants were given loans to increase their land size and grow more grain. Therefore Russia was able to sell more grain and gain more money. This suggests that Russia’s economy was improving very early on and this method of increasing their economic power panned out to be successful in the long term, however this would only be successful if the peasants buying the land were productive.
Essay Notes How far were the economic problems responsible for Stalin’s decision to replace the New Economic Policy in 1928 with the First Five Year Plan? Introduction –The question is focused on the economic policies pursued by the government in the 1920s and the reasons behind the dramatic changes in 1928. Were the reasons purely economic or must other factors be taken into account? Development • Why did Stalin stop supporting the NEP and start supporting rapid industrialisation? • Did the NEP really fail or did it suit Stalin to make it look as though it had?
To what extent was collectivisation a success for the Stalinist state? Collectivisation was introduced by Stalin’s government in 1928, collectivisation aimed to increase government procurement, production and grain export. It also attempted to socialise the land, meaning the land was not owned by individual peasants and instead equally distributed. It was planned to be a voluntary system, however due to peasant resistance it became forced in 1929. Stalin expected agricultural yield to increase due to a higher efficiency, mechanisation and a greater work incentive, he also believed that mechanisation would decrease the need for farm labour, increasing the number of proletariats in the city.
However, temporary capitalist intervention from western countries in the Civil War also demonstrated to the Bolsheviks that an isolate USSR was vulnerable and for a communist regime to survive it would have to ensure its security in the future. Survival was the main priority from 1917-1924 and with the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922 with Weimar Germany, the USSR showed that it could be pragmatic and work with capitalist states if necessary for survival. Stalin continued the inward looking policies of Lenin and concentrated upon the economic reconstruction of the USSR. The policy of ‘socialism in one country’ focused partly on industrialisation to develop its ability to increase its levels of rearmament to protect from potential capitalist states. By 1933 with the rise to power of Hitler the USSR recognised the potential threat of Nazism.
This was sometimes called ‘Revolution from above. During the years 1928 to 1941 Stalin decided to introduce a series of reforms in order to radically change Russia’s economy. This would not only create a more prosperous country, but as well would stand out the figure of Stalin and would make him a memorable leader for his acts, moving of the way the image people had of Lenin as the real and unique leader Russia once had. During these years, through collectivisation and industrialisation (Five Year Plans), Stalin was able o successfully improve Russia’s economy. This was mostly due to his policies of collectivisation which made economic sense and forced a lot of peasants to leave the land, which was a process needed in order to change an agricultural rural society to an urban and industrial one as well s the fact that his industrialisation plan increased massively the heavy industry in Russia; the production of raw materials such as iron, coal, steel and oil all increased successfully.
'How far were the divisions over the continuation of the New Economic Policy responsible for the outcome of the power struggle in the years 1924-1929? ‘ The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced in 1921 by Bukharin and Lenin, primarily due to Russia’s urgent need for food, which offered the peasantry a partial response to small-scale capitalism and a free market economy. The aim of this was to win over the poor peasantry to the side of the proletarian dictatorship. The NEP divided the CPSU, as many believed that it was “anti-communist”, as it allowed a capitalist structure under a communist party. In order to prevent the NEP tearing his Bolshevik party apart, however, Lenin introduced a “ban on factionalism”, and this stifled criticism of the NEP.
25,000 farmers bought their land under it. ‘Killing Home Rule with kindness’ A In 1886, the Conservatives won the election. In 1887, Arthur Balfour became Chief Secretary. His Irish policy was influenced by the Liberal Unionist leader, Joseph Chamberlain A In a pamphlet called “A Unionist Policy for Ireland” Chamberlain said that there were real problems in Ireland: land ownership, impoverished small farms and lack of local democracy. If the British government solved these problems, Chamberlain argued, it would kill the demand for Home Rule A Balfour made land purchase the central part of the Conservative’s Irish policy because: E He hoped that when farmers owned their farms they would become more conservative (opposed to change) and want to stay in the United Kingdom E Land purchase was also good for the landlords who were the Conservatives’ Irish allies.