According to Rios “in this era of mass incarceration, society has formed around the idea that young adults who commit small acts of deviance will eventually commit more severe acts and this leads to community members treating all deviants as criminals”. This attitude from the community only contributes to the embracing of the stereotype “criminal” and makes it very easy for the youth to “give up” and then mess up. If only the communities and families realized the youths are being given a second chance because of a non-violent crime and have the opportunity to get back on track, and if they have
It is useful for highlighting why, in the working class, those who cannot achieve in education, they then therefore suffer from status frustration and in this process turn to other people who also cannot achieve in this institution. Thus, explaining why deviance subcultures exist. This theory of status frustration is said to focus too much on utilitarian crime which is committed for material gain, but what it does not say much about is the explanation for why people commit non-utilitarian crimes like vandalism and assault. Cohen realised this and backed up this explanation by talking about alternative status hierarchy. When working class boys find that they cannot perform well in mainstream education, they look at the values of not only the education system, but the values in modern society and turn them upside down, by valuing the opposite.
Looking at the social characteristics can show a link between the types of social characteristics that people have and the types of crime they are involved in. For example looking at the location where an individual comes from and ethnicity, may associate him with a certain type of behaviour. It is shown that black men are more likely to be stopped and search according to Mayhew they were 8 times more likely, especially in deprived areas typically council estates, and are run down. However police may also stop and search a black male, due to institutional racism and negative stereotyping of the group. Some crimes go unrecorded or undetected, because some people feel pressure, they may be domestic or drug usage, there is even a class difference.
Cohen’s theory assured that lower class youth enter into gang delinquency as a group response to a failure to acquire status as measured by middle class norms and values. Since lower-class youths are disadvantaged in institutional settings such as school, they lack the means and opportunities to attain culturally prescribed goals. He said that working class youths suffer from status frustration, they realize that they cannot achieve in middle class terms. According to him, even though lower class boys want a middle class status; they can not compete with middle class boy because they don’t have middle class values. As a result, they engage in reaction formation and reject the middle class world.
Crime shows other members of the society what is right and wrong. Social consensus decides how right and wrong is determined. Crime can lead to social change, say functionalists, because the existence of crime proves to the people in the society that the government does not overly control the citizens. Crime can also help the economy of a society by creating jobs for law enforcement officers, psychiatrists, probation officers and the like. However, even in a functionalist society, too much crime can be bad for the group, causing it to lose the standard harmony and eventually causing the society to collapse.
This is due to them trying to prove that they’re masculine enough. Sub cultures also form when boys are kept in big groups of boys. This increases they’re chances of being peer pressured and also engage in criminal like behaviour. Also the age group that they belong to allows then to commit crime and get away with it as they’re less likely to be put into jail, which can make then more rebellious considering they do not like the law or for any other reason. Most criminals haven’t been taught the difference between right and wrong for example upbringing.
“The Outsiders” and “Saints and Roughnecks” commonly point towards one issue i.e. future of individuals is decided by the way they are treated by the materialistic society which tends to favor the rich and suppress the poor to the extent that the latter are pushed into social exclusion. The society in which we live today tends to be principally divided into two types of people—the rich and the poor. People belonging to both of these classes can be criminals, but it appears as though the poor are always the ones committing delinquent acts. The poor get noticed for their crimes because their region is specific and a scarcity of resources which causes them to be less smart in hiding their crimes unlike the rich.
And of course none of these are good escape routes from poverty and we all believe in the term "poverty causes crime". But it’s not always the poor who commits crime. Mostly the poor or the middle class people will go after crimes to fulfill their temporary desires. For example raping, stealing and sometimes murder too. Since the low class poor people are not usually educated, they often easily “pushed” into the crimes by the high class people.
From his essay we can see that Staples is, very obviously, a victim of Racial Stereotyping. Besides being mistaken for a rapist, thought to be a criminal at his own place of work and not being able to walk into a jewelry store without being believed to be a thief we see that he’s actually a very good person, but since he is a six foot two inch tall Black man people just assume that he’s going to try to hurt them, or steal something from them when in reality he’s got a kind heart and very good intentions. In his Essay Staples says “I grew up one of the good boys, had perhaps a half-dozen fistfights” (385). This shows us that despite his background and the color of his skin
Peer pressure worsens behavior. Came as a means of punishment look at the crimes that each other came at the facility and try to be the best and think it is cool. From her research she found that, When they are being released they are worst than as they came in, which can create a higher risk to them in society, and in so doing end up in prison as adults. Jennifer Gonnerman, in her essay makes the case that, “Tyron has become a penal colony for kids,” The kids feel isolated because of the distance, location and conditions and treatment receive at the juvenile center. “The moment the wire fence went up,” They are being treated as prisoners, not only because of peer pressure as Maia said but Jennifer confirms it that the treatment receive in the center are likely a cause of them returning