a. strain buildup only b. location of foci c. magnitude of P-waves [pic] d. reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup 2. What are most earthquakes associated with? a. rift valleys b. mid-ocean ridges c. divergent plate boundaries [pic] d. plate boundaries 3. At what point in the graph would a rock be permanently deformed? [pic] a. at the start of the stress [pic] b. past
Haiti Earthquake, January 2010 Terrah-Leigh Ann Pietersen On the 12th of January, 2010, an earthquake struck Haiti which measured up to 7.0 on the Richter scale. This caused an estimate of 230, 000 to 316, and 000 to have died. The earthquake was produced form the fault line that separates the Caribbean tectonic plate from the North American plate. The fault line ran from east to west. It was miles away from the capital called Port au Prince.
Plate Tectonics Press Release Assignment Geology/101 An earthquake is the shaking of the ground cause by an abrupt shift of rock along a fracture in the Earth, called a fault. An earthquake is caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse buildings and bridges; disrupt gas, electric, and phone services; and sometimes trigger landslides, avalanches, flash floods, fires, and huge, destructive ocean waves (tsunamis) (www.fema.gov/hazard/earthquake/facts). So the question that everyone wants to know is why does the planet move when the plates move? The planet moves whenever the two plates get tangled together.
The lithosphere is divided into 7 major plates, including the North-American plate, and several minor plates. Between these plates are three different types of plate boundaries: constructive, destructive and conservative. Earthquakes can occur at all three when pressure builds up and is released in one sudden movement. The Earth’s plates move due to convection currents within the mantle in the Earth’s asthenosphere. As heat rises and cools it forces the plates in different directions; either sliding past one another, away or towards each other.
The 1985 Mexico City earthquake was one of the most devastating earthquakes in the history of the Americas. On Thursday, September 19, 1985, at 7:19 am. local time, Mexico City was struck by an earthquake of magnitude 8.1 on the Richter scale. The epicenter of the earthquake was off the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Michoacán, a distance of 350 km, in the Cocos Plate subduction zone. It was felt as far away as Los Angeles, California.
Thus, the Commission established the San Andreas Fault as a “continuous geologic structure extending for over 600 miles throughout much of California” (Zoback). Triangulation surveys, which are “optical measurements that detect changes in the angles between lines connecting monuments fixed in the ground,” proved to be one of the most noteworthy observations made after the earthquake of 1906 (USGS). Displacements in the earthquake were found, and the largest were observed at the fault and “decreased with distance from it, so that a previously straight line crossing the fault had become curved” (USGS). Ultimately, these observations led to the “theory of elastic rebound,” which was initiated by Professor H.F. Reid of John Hopkins University who had also served on Lawson’s Commission (Zoback). This theory is so important
Japan is a country that lies a hundred km from where tectonic plates are clashing at a convergent boundary, with one plate being dragged beneath the other. These tectonic plates are very thick rating, from 10km to 50km and are in motion with respect to each other. In Japan, they tend to move at rates of eight to nine centimeters yearly hence the result is a collision, with one plate forced to go beneath the other. If enough stresses build up from this sticking, then finally there will be a sudden slip which produces an earthquake. Japan is well known for being particularly amenable to subduction zone earthquakes, with huge pressures brought to bear by the sticking tectonic plate zones nearby it, and the slipping results in many earthquakes, some of them very big for instance the Tohoku earthquake.
a. Volcano: include the type of lava, where magma is derived, and why this setting produces hazards b. Earthquake: magnitude and amount of displacement or offset 6. Describe the type of hazards in terms of cause, hazard definition, and location (example-tsunami inundation occurred within 1 mile of coastline in low lying areas). 7. Fatalities 8. Damage: 2-3 specific examples of structural damage (earthquakes); areas covered with volcanic debris (volcanic eruption); any other types of damage 9.
Earthquakes Sheila Fangmeier GEO101 – Earth Science Colorado State University – Global Campus Karen Stelly October 5, 2014 Earthquakes “An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves” (Earthquake, 2014). Seisometers measure earthquake magnitude and intensity based on two scales, the Richter and Mercalli. An earthquake’s magnitude can range from less than 2.0 to greater than 9.0 on the Richter scale and its intensity I to greater than VIII on Mercalli (Richter magnitude scale, 2014). The depth focus is important to how much damage can occur on the Earth’s surface. An earthquake’s depth can be considered shallow (less than 70km), intermediate (between 70km and 300km), or deep (300km to 700km) (Earthquake, 2014).