Autumn Hamman GE 258 A & P 1 Unit 2 Case study: The Cellular Level of Organization “Joseph’s story” Question B: Assuming Joseph’s heart has stopped, what cellular processes and membrane functions are going to be affected by the loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal? As the blood slows and the flow of oxygen and glucose slows, each cells continues to work rapidly burning up its ATP supply. Carbon dioxide builds in the cells and the pH balance begins to drop. Eventually the cells begin to die and the Active transport pumps shut down the plasma membranes of Joseph’s heart. The cells become leaky; sodium slowly began to leak into the cells, and potassium leaked out.
The R-squared value shows us the correlation between the two variables in each graph that we were comparing. A consistent, precise R-squared value would be ideally 1. In all three cases, only one of our methods gave us this result: Titration. So given our results titration was the most precise method. But, our Ideal Gas Law method was more precise than crystallization from the previous week due to our newly found R-squared value of 0.8909.
Name: Alexis Savastano How Does pH Affect an Enzyme? Catalase is an enzyme that helps decompose the toxic hydrogen peroxide that is produced during normal cell activities. The products of this reaction are water and oxygen gas. The pressure of the oxygen gas in a closed container increases as oxygen is produced. Any increase in the rate of reaction will cause an increase in the pressure of the oxygen.
AS substrates are initially added, the activity is higher and then it reaches a plateau with increase. NO. Sucrase activity reached a plateau. Correct Predictions: Optimal temperature: 40 °C (104 °F), Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration until a plateau is reached. Incorrect predictions: Sucrase will have highest activity at ph 6 not ph 7 Warm up exercise increases body temperature making it ideal for enzyme activity Increasing myosin activity makes muscles tougher and stiff and limits free movement for performance.
It does however have its negatives in that the ATP lasts only 10 seconds so can’t be used for long distance running for example. The lactic acid system, like the ATP-CP system, is extremely important to us, primarily because it too provides for a rapid supply of ATP energy. For example, exercises that are performed at maximum rates for between 1 and 3 minutes depends heavily upon the lactic acid system for ATP energy. Also, in some performances, like running 1500 meters or a mile, the lactic acid system is used predominately for the kick at the end of a race. A disadvantage of this system is the by product which is lactic acid which makes the muscles sore.
4. Graph 5. Table Chainobead Construction Time Part A | 15 Seconds | 6 | 30 Seconds | 12 | 60 Seconds | 20 | 120 Seconds | 29 | Part 1B: 1. The results of the 120 seconds with the non-pop beads added to the mix didn’t hinder the enzyme’s construction rate at all except for the first trial. In the first trial 28 chainobeads were constructed, in the second trial 30 chainobeads were constructed, and in the final trial 35 chainobeads were constructed.
Explain what it means to denature an enzyme. -To denature an enzyme means to change its shape by breaking the hydrogen bonds that holds its shape, thus rendering it useless. An enzyme can be denatured with heat, or with a change in pH. 5. What factors did you need to control in your tests?
This was demonstrated in the lab when the majority of the organisms possessed spoon mouths and were therefore unable to access the majority of the resources causing a massive decrease in the number of organisms resulting in an equilibrium of how many organisms could exist with the possible resources at hand. This leads us to the first inference: when the population goes over the envierments carrying capacity the organisms find it difficult to exist and this was obviously displayed among our data indicated by the reaching of an equilibrium. Fact number 3: some traits among organisms are indeed heritable to the offspring and the subsequent generation. As long as there were plenty of resources the mouth trait of spoon continued to persist among organisms this was indeed a heritable trait that continues to be passed along because it enabled all who possessed it to be successful in there given situations. Fact number 4: variability is crucial to the survival of a population.
The tanks were also unwieldy to use as they were prone to getting stuck in the mud and breakdown, as well as being short-ranged and slow, travelling only 10 kilometres per hour. These first tanks had not been tested in trench conditions and were not developed enough. Over a third of the shells used were duds and did not explode on impact. However, the tanks were useful in gaining land and were very effective against machine gun fire as the infantry could follow behind it using it as a shield against the bullets. Later, at the Battle of Cambrai, they were to be used to much greater effect.
But if it persists for a prolonged duration, the continuous action of high concentration of Glucocorticoid on liver, muscle and adipose tissues, loses it adaptive value, adversely impacts the muscle and bone impairing the endocrine and immune function, degrading the body mass, individual fitness and causing reproductive failure resulting the long-term behavioural changes as supported by the Cort-fitness hypothesis (Munck et al. 1984, Bonier, 2009; Muehlenbein et al .2012; Norman M