Running Head: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Introduction This paper is intended to discuss the psychoanalytic theory as developed by Sigmund Feud. The paper will also discuss the differences between the relational and isolated-mind view of human and emotion distress. I will also discuss the Heinz Kohut’s psychology of the self. I will also take time to highlight the differences between a theory that understands emotional distress as emanating from the inside of the patient alone versus theories that understand distress as emanating from the relational contexts in which self objects needs are not being met. Further still, I will discuss the differences between the theories that see the patient’s behavior as coming from patients mind alone versus the theories that see the patient as reacting to his/her environment.
When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive Therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which reduce the psychological distress. Cognitive behavioral Therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s.
Jung and Adler are the most significant theorists to follow Freud in this arena. Other schools of personality theory include: the “behaviourists” - viewing personality as a response tendencies developed through learning, Skinner and Pavlov being the better known theorists in this area; the “humanists” - focusing on the concept of “self” and arguing that incongruence, or the battle between one’s “self-concept” and reality creates anxiety and therefore defensive behaviour; the “biological” or “evolutionary” theorists, such as Eysenck who theorised that inherited differences in physiological functioning can affect an individual's conditioning and thus influence their personality (Weiten, Dunn, Hammer, 2012); and the “Trait” theorists such as Cattell and Allport and the more contemporary McCrae and Costa who have used the statistical procedure of factor analysis to reduce human personality down to five factors of personality known as “The Big Five”. These factors are: “Extroversion vs Introversion”, “Emotional Stabilty vs Neuroticism”, “Open vs Closed (to experience)”, “Agreeable vs Unagreeable”, “Conscientious vs Unconscientious”. Trait theorists argue that all personality traits are derived from these five traits. What follows is an outline of Freud’s theory of psychodynamics, and a description of the biological perspective on personality.
However, today’s adherents of the psychodynamic perspective are based more on the exploration of such things as defenses and conflicts and other unconscious aspects of personality (Wade and Tavris, 1990) and less on the Freud’s outlook (Gaylin, 2000). The psychodynamic approach gets its name from the action or movement psychological energies within the person (Wade and Tavris, 1990, p. 636). The interaction of conflicts, anxiety, and defense mechanisms beyond the problems that cause people to seek professional help in the first place (Eisenberg and Patterson, 1979). The psychodynamic approach uses such tools as free association and transference as a way of assisting the client. The
Personality Analysis Paper Jessica Ogunlanoh Psych/ 405 03/28/11 Linda O’ Conner Personality Analysis Paper 1 Various personality theories provide different explanations how situational behavior becomes affected by personality. The two theories to be addressed in this paper are the humanistic/existential and dispositional theories. The humanistic/existential perspective considers the entire person when trying to explain the development of personality and acknowledges the potential within each individual when doing so. On the other hand, the dispositional perspective pays close attention to his or her traits when describing the development of personality, which according to this view are the building blocks of one’s personality. To understand more clearly the differences between the humanistic/existential and dispositional theories, the writer will compare and contrast them.
The period from approximately 1930 to 1950 was marked by the establishment of the field and the development of a number of general systems. Gordon Allport (1937, as cited in McAdams, 2009) viewed personality psychology as the study of the individual person-an idiographic approach to personality-and how that individual adjusted to his environment. During that period however, other Psychologists had a nomothetic approach to personality in which personality emphasized how people were different from one another, as well as how they were alike. American psychology searched for universal laws that applied to all organisms instead of individualized studies. The period from 1950 to 1970 marked a second historical phase.
In other words, a person’s experience or behavior is caused by how the situation is interpreted. During psychotherapy with CBT, the therapist works with the patient in modifying the dysfunctional thinking that causes the symptoms. Also, the therapist works to modify the underlying beliefs that are causing the dysfunctional thinking. The “General Cognitive Model” states that first a situation occurs, then a person has automatic thoughts and automatic images, and finally the person reacts emotionally or behaviorally. Another important aspect of CBT is the “Cognitive Triad,” which says that most dysfunctional thinking falls under one of three categories: Negative view of the self, negative view of the future, or negative view of the world.
Each theory has their own similarities and differences which includes strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, it is ideal for a professional counselor to explore, and implement, many theories in his or her career. Adlerian Theory Key Concepts Adlerian Theory was developed by Alfred Adler who shared the same ideas as Freud but eventually concluded that Freud's concepts were too deterministic and limited. Adler eventually established his own theory of human development and psychotherapy, which he called Individual Psychology. Alfred Adler believed that understanding people grew from knowledge of their goals and drives, their family constellations, their social contexts, and their styles of life.
Introduction In this essay I will compare and contrast person-centred and existential counselling with family therapy. In so doing, I will, in effect, explore the natural dividing line between biological/psychological approaches that are both intrapersonal and humanistic (focussed on individual human potentiality), and an alternative interpersonal therapy that is concerned with influencing the behaviour of individual members of a family towards it and the individual’s better functioning. I will show that the main difference lies in the type of components that make up the theoretical construct on which the approaches are based, that these were derived in a context that is less relevant now, and that they determine the specific approach to therapy in practice. Taking the approaches in turn, I will then show that, given the individual-systemic divide, both the humanistic and the family therapy endeavours are similar in that they attempt to promote change in the overall organisation of either the individual or the family by changing the structural components. I will show that the goal of change in all the therapies is coherence, ‘a congruent interdependence in functioning whereby all the aspects of the system fit together’ (Browne, 2013) without distortions and whereby the person can make sense of his or her world.
Dr Aaron T. Beck Aaron T. Beck started training as psychoanalysis alongside Albert Ellis. Beck researched depression under the psychoanalytical with the understanding that depression stemmed from anger turned against oneself. Although Beck began his work in the area of depression, latterly he had begun to work with Borderline Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia (Ridgway, 2005). Beck said that negative automatic thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs, were the cause of depressive symptoms, and not vice versa. The main argument that Beck had was that depression started by the view one’s self image, instead of one having a negative view of them because of depression (Allen, 2003).