Describe Key Elements of the Three Counselling Approaches

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Level 2 Describe key elements of Psychodynamic, Humanistic and Cognitive behaviour approaches of counselling. Psychodynamic approach This therapy originates from the work of Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) which believes that personality is greatly influenced by the unconscious mind and childhood experiences. His theory also believes that the personality is made up of three parts: id (instinctual drives, needs and urges), ego (intermediates between id and real world), superego (internal authority, morals, ideals). This type of therapy tends to be long term and considers the therapist as the expert to the patient (not client). Key aspects of psycho dynamic therapy are dream interpretation and transference that is when feelings from previous significant relationships are projected on to the therapist. Free association is often used too where by the patient talks of whatever comes to mind or immediately responds with a word when a list is read out e.g. mother, childhood etc. Others who practised, researched and expanded on Freud’s original theories include Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) and Alfred Adler (1870 – 1937). Humanistic approach American psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers (1902 – 1987) was one of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology, He believed for a person to ‘’grow’’ they need an environment that provides them with congruence (genuineness, openness) unconditional positive regard (acceptance) and empathy (being understood and listened to). He called these the three core conditions. He said that these conditions are necessary for change to occur. This therapy is considered to be holistic looking at the person as a whole. It considers the core self (how we are born) self-concept (how we see ourselves) and conditions of worth (conditions that a person perceives are put upon them externally by those around them and which they believe
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