2. Acetylation of p-methylaniline to create p-methylacetanilide. Here acetic anhydride will be used to prepare the nitrogen substituted acetamide. This is conducted to make the amine group, which is a very stong ortho and para directing activator on an aromatic ring, a lesser strength activator so that the oxidation of the methyl group can proceed. 3.
An alternate name for Complex Q is Ubiquinone. The importance of CoQ is that not only does it accept electrons from NADH dehydrogenase complex (A.K.A Complex 1) but it can also accept electrons from Complex 2 (A.K.A succinate dehydrogenase). Succinate is one of the intermediate products in the citric acid cycle. Succinate dehydrogenase acts on succinate to create fumarate in the citric acid cycle. In the
Four main types of reactions relevant to this experiment are uni/di-molecular nucleophilic substitution (SN1 and SN2) and uni/di-molecular elimination (E1 and E2). In most cases, SN1 often competes with E1, and SN2 often competes with E2 reactions. In a SN2 reaction, a nucleophile comes in contact with a substrate molecule and works to replace a leaving group on the substrate. A nucleophile is a molecule that is ready to donate an electron pair to a substrate (electrophile). When approaching the electrophile, the nucleophile comes from the opposite side of the leaving group (backside attack).
Zinc Chloride acts as the catalyst in the reaction. In some condition, heat supply is needed in the reaction. Alkyl halide can be prepared from alcohol by reacting them with a hydrogen halide, HX (X=Cl,Br, or I). The mechanism of acid catalyzed substitution of alcohols are termed SN1 and SN2, where “S” stands for substitution while sub-“N” stands for nucleophilic, and the number “1” and “2” is described as first order and second order respectively. The “1” or “2” is also represent the reaction is unimolecular or bimolecular reaction.
Bromides are most often used, as they reacts the fastest and are readily available. Grignard reagent undergoes reactions with compounds containing carbonyl group. These reactions create alcohols, carboxylic acids or ketones. They react with formaldehyde to form primary alcohols, with other aldehydes to form secondary alcohols, and with ketones to form tertiary alcohols. Quenching a Grignard with dry ice yields the carboxylic acid.
Abstract Otto Diels, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Kiel, Germany, and his student Kurt Alder published a paper in 1928 on additions of electron-poor alkenes and alkynes to electron-rich dienes to form cyclohexenes and cyclohexadienes. These [4+2] cycloadditions came to be known as Diels-Alder reactions. The Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most useful synthetic reactions in organic chemistry. In one step the reaction forms a six-membered ring with one or two double bonds forming an open-chain compound. A diene is the 4-pi-electron component.
Here is the acid-base reaction between nitric acid and sulfuric acid to form the nitronium ion. Bronsted base bronsted acid conj. Acid +HSO4(conj base) Based on bronsted definition, an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor. Sulfuric acid is a stronger acid than nitric acid so it is the one to be deprotonated. While the resulting product of the base is the conjugate acid and the product of the acid is the conj base.
The Grignard reagents are usually created with the solvents anhydrous diethyl ether or THF and are very air sensitive. The Grignard reagent are very basic which make them very good proton acceptors. In our experiment we created a tertiary alcohol by using an ester and carbonyl molecule. The ester is converted to a ketone than immediately reacts with the Grignard reagent to give the tertiary alcohol, triphenylmethanol. Reaction Mechanism Procedure A.
common polyatomic ions | Name | chemical formula | comments | ammonium cation | | Ammonium and hydronium are the only polyatomic cations you are likely to meet in general chemistry. | hydronium cation | | Hydronium cations and hydroxide anions are very important in the chemistry of acids and bases. | hydroxide anion | | | acetate anion | | The formula for acetate anion can also be written . | cyanide anion | | | peroxide anion | | | carbonate anion | | These are some of the most common oxoanions. Once you've memorized their names and formulae, there are rules for naming other, less common oxoanions.