Fash was a very interesting book that catalogued the history of the Maya from the Preclassic Period (2000 B.C.E to 250 AD) to the Postclassic Period (900 AD- 1200 AD) including the collapse of the Classic Period centers in the southern lowlands, to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in 1519 AD. The first section of the book talks about Copan as being the classic Maya center describing Copan as “the Athens of the New World” and also explains the importance of archeological studies at the site. Copan has more hieroglyphic inscriptions and other sculpted monuments than any other Maya ruin, or any other site in the New World. The principal group of ruins, or site core, consists of a series of large buildings constructed around open courtyards which frequently contained stelae and alters. The principal groups contained two basic parts; the north included many low-lying plazas and to the south, the upraised courtyards and constituent structures were built upon the Acropolis .
The most recognized tribute was the forced upon tribute for the Aztecs to repay Spain. The others form of tribute was the nobles providing goods to the rulers of their locality. The Aztecs then took the form of a state government. The upper class consisted of the nobles and its main leader became Montezuma. The customs of the great city of Teotihuacán were used by the mexica about a decade after the lost of the Teotihuacan civilization.
The cenotes facilitated tapping the underground waters of the area. The dates for this settlement vary according to subsequent local accounts: one manuscript gives 415-35 A.D., while others mention 455 A.D. The town that grew up around the sector known as Chichen Viejo already boasted important monuments of great interest: the Nunnery, the Church, Akab Dzib, Chichan Chob, the Temple of the Panels and the Temple of the Deer. They were constructed between the 6th and the 10th centuries in the characteristic Maya style then popular both in the northern and southern areas of the Puuc hills.The second settlement of Chichen-Itza, and the most important for historians, corresponded to the migration of Toltec warriors from the Mexican plateau towards the south during the 10th century. According to the most common version, the King of Tula, Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl, or Kukulkan as the Maya translated the name, reportedly took the city between 967 A.D. and 987 A.D.Following the conquest of Yucatán a new style blending the Maya and Toltec traditions developed, symbolizing the phenomenon of acculturation.
The British colonized the New World in the 1580s. In the late fifteenth century, a few distinctive civilizations came together to shape the Atlantic World. The initial civilization consisted of the Native Americans who occupied North America. The Native Americans voyaged from Asia, presumably over the Bering Strait, and ultimately progressed into numerous civilizations with distinctive verbal communications. The natives had various
It flourished on the broad, flat reaches of Mexico's Yucatán peninsula between the 7th and 13th centuries. Chichén Itzá is a mixture of Maya, Itzá and Toltec influences. Chichén Itzá was the largest ruined city of the time of the Mayans. The picture was taken by a photo named Monica L. Shulman, and it was taken in the year of 1992. In this picture is the remaining of what was left after the Mayans.
They lived in relative peace from around 1000 - 1100 AD when Mayap n overthrew the confederation and ruled for over 200 years. In 1441 the Maya who had previously ruled Uxmal destroyed the city of Mayap n and founded a new city at Mani. Wars were fought between rival Mayan groups over the territory until the region was conquered by the Spanish. Chichen Itza was first populated between 500 and 900 AD by Mayans and for some reason abandoned around 900, the city was then resettled 100 years later and subsequently invaded by Toltecs from the North. There are numerous reliefs of both Mayan gods including Chac and the Toltec gods including Quetzacoatl.
Culhuacan was the most powerful on the south of Lake Texcoco and Atzcapotzalco on the west shore. This valley was the center of the Aztecs civilization, huge and about 7,500 feet above the sea level. However, before the Aztecs came to The Valley of Mexico, other tribal groups came. One of them built the great city and
These empires controlled the valleys of America for hundreds of years. 1. Maya Civilization The Mayan civilization began in 2300B.C. The Mayan civilization was located in the lower part of Central America. The area where the Mayan civilization was located was filled with highlands, volcanic mountains, and lowlands that contained rain
The Chinchorro peoples existed around 2,000 years before the Egyptians. They lived on the coast of Chile and Northern Peru. The Chinchorro mummies, which have remained preserved in Chile for more than 7,000 years, are now under threat from increased levels of moisture. Humid air is allowing bacteria to grow, causing the mummies' skin "to go black and become gelatinous”. The rapid deterioration began within the past 10 years, and has affected some of the 120 mummies that are housed at the University of Tarapacá’s archaeological museum in the northern port city of Arica.
INTRODUCTION The native Amerindian population of Cuba began to decline after the European discovery of the island by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and following its development as a Spanish colony during the next several centuries. Large numbers of African slaves were imported to work the coffee and sugar plantations and Havana became the launching point for the annual treasure fleets bound for Spain from Mexico and Peru. Spanish rule was severe and exploitative and occasional rebellions were harshly suppressed. It was US intervention during the Spanish-American War in 1898 that finally overthrew Spanish rule. The subsequent Treaty of Paris established Cuban independence, which was granted in 1902 after a three-year transition period.