Discuss explanations of gender dysphoria (24 marks) Gender dysphoria is an individual’s experience of feeling uncomfortable with the gender assigned to them at birth. Gender identity disorder (GID) is the psychiatric classification for people experiencing gender dysphoria whereby the person does not have an intersex condition such as AIS or CAH. There are both psychosocial explanations and biological explanations for gender dysphoria. Psychosocial explanations focus on a person’s psychological development in, and interaction with, a social environment, whilst biological explanations focus on a persons genes and hormones. One psychosocial explanation suggests that gender dysphoria is linked to some childhood trauma or maladaptive upbringing.
Gender Differences In Aggression Previous research concerning peer aggression has been conducted under the assumption that women rarely display aggression; therefore, aggressive behavior has historically been viewed as a male phenomenon (Björkqvist, 1994). Recently, many researchers have challenged the gender bias in the existence of aggressive behaviors and have broadened the definition of aggression. Björkqvist's research suggests sex differences exist in the quality of the aggression, but not the quantity. According to Paquette and Underwood (1999), an adolescent's expression of anger and contempt for peers can sometimes be expressed through physical aggression, manipulation, exclusion, and/or gossip. This broader definition allows for a more complete understanding of the social or relational aggression, which is typically associated with females.
Another characteristic may be a child showing a preference for playing with and sharing in stereotypical games of the opposite sex. The characteristics once exhibited may be a sign of gender dysmorphic behaviour in children stated by the DSM IV. There are two major explanations for the development of gender dysphoria; the psychological and biological explanation. The psychological explanation states that gender dysmorphia is due to two factors; separation anxiety and parental influence. The first adopts a psychodynamic approach and refers to a child’s anxiety when separated from a primary care giver.
Nature refers to the biological factors that influence ones behavior. This would be the genes that people are born with or how one gender is predisposition to certain behaviors. A common question is one that asks if boys or girls are more or less aggressive than the other. Something to take into consideration is that boys and girls experience aggression differently. Boys are more likely to engage in physical aggression but boys and girls are equally likely to engage in verbal aggression.
http://psychology.about.com/od/gindex/g/gender.htm How do gender and sex contribute to the concepts and constructions of masculinity and femininity? They both contribute to masculinity and feminity because they are both ways to tell the difference between the two. They are decribed as to different individuals as males being the strong overseer of a family and a woman being the loving caring mother. Do our concepts of gender and sex contribute to the ways we embrace gender and sex in diversity? Yes I feel that they do contribute to the way that we embrace gender and sex in diversity.
In order to build background knowledge to audiences, Michael Cramphorn first introduce how the gender different in psychological aspect. Michael highly supported Simon Baron-Cohen’s idea, which is about “Gender Different in brain” (Cramphron 148). He is a psychopathologist of University of Cambridge, and he indicated that different structure of brain between male and female result in primarily different personality and reaction of life. Even though Michael is not professional in this field, his objective and informative tone is persuasive for our readers to understand and believe the gender difference has existed when we at birth. For example, Michael indicated that “Gender difference caused by chromosome.
An example of this are the distinct sexual organs that children are born with to associate them anatomically with a gender. In addition, geneders are further differentiated when other sexual characteristic begin to display during puberty. Chemical messenger compounds known as hormones are what coordinates the appearance of such physical differences. There is research that suggests that the same sex hormones which create sexual organ differenciation in utero, and also that trigger puberty later in life may also play in important role in determining gender identity. Males normally have more of the male sex hormones called androgens than females.
For example people with schizophrenia are believed to have this disorder because they have a bigger gaps in their brains due to the shrinkage of brain tissue. There have also been studies into the neurotransmitters of the brain that have been able to directly link some certain neurotransmitters with particular disorders. An example would be that there is shown to be a link between serotonin and depression, there is also shown to be a link between dopamine and schizophrenia. One study that supports the biological approach was by Kraft et al (2005). They found that 96 people with depression showed a much more positive response when treated with a SNRI than those who were treated with a placebo.
What does research show about the effects of day-care on children’s social development? Day-care can be defined as being: regular temporary separation; outside the home environment and not with a family member. However the effects of day-care on social development of infants and into later life is a controversial debate between psychologists. Some such as John Bowlby saw that maternal deprivation caused by separation of infant from mother, due to day-care caused harmful effects - such as mental health issues and behavioural problems - on the infants social development. Bowlby believed in the evolutionary theory of attachment suggesting that humans were born biologically programmed to form attachments in order to successfully survive.
Describe and evaluate the biological approach to gender development Biological psychology stresses the importance of our brain structure, genes and hormones for how we behave. It is believed that women and men act, think and feel differently because of how the brain works. This is supported through our genetic structure as females (XX) and males are (XY), it is said that sex is determined at conception and it is universal, where as gender is mailable and cultural. Gender relates to how you perceive and see yourself. Klinefelters syndrome (XXY) supports that we are a product of our genes, as a sufferer would have under developed genitals and a lack of body hair, which shows how a difference in genes can effect us.