Outline and evaluate biological explanations of schizophrenia Genetic evidence for explaining the causes of schizophrenia usually are either family studies, twin studies or adoption studies all of which rely upon correlation. First degree relatives share an average of 50% of their genes and research has shown the closer the biological relationship, the greater the likelihood that someone has of developing schizophrenia if the relative in question has schizophrenia. Twin studies have compared the difference in concordance rates of schizophrenia between dizygotic and monozygotic twins when both share similar environments. Most show a higher concordance rate in monozygotic twins illustrating the genetic link involved in predisposing individuals to the condition. Adoption studies go one step further in narrowing down a strong correlational link by ruling out the effect of environment on development of schizophrenia to illustrate the genetic link more clearly.
Genetic explanations for OCD are supported by family and twin studies. Nestadt et al found that people with a first degree relative with OCD had a five times greater risk of having OCD at some point in their lives compared to the general population. Billet et al found that Mz twins were twice as likely as Dz twins to develop OCD if their co twin had the disorder. In addition to this some studies have implicated specific genetics as a possible cause for OCD. It was found that a variation of the gene COMT occurred in 50% of male OCD suffered, 10% of female OCD sufferers and 16% of the general population.
There are a great diversity of childhood disorder forms and causes. Some of these disorders are primarily disorders of the brain, while others are more behavioral in nature. Whatever the cause of child’s disorders or illnesses, one basic rule applies to what to do about helping them: It is best to seek professional treatment at the earliest time possible. Early treatment and intervention for children's symptoms helps reduce the impact of those symptoms on further development. Untreated symptoms can snowball and lead to the development of sometimes severe secondary problems such as social, academic and occupational difficulties, addictions, poor self-esteem, suicide attempts, self-harm (cutting or burning oneself) and the like.
“It occurs in 10 percent of people who have a first-degree relative with the disorder, such as a parent, brother, or sister. People who have second-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, grandparents, or cousins) with the disease also develop schizophrenia more often than the general population” (Schizophrenia, 2009). There isn’t just one gene that is associated with schizophrenia, but scientists believe there are several genes that are linked to the disorder. “Other recent studies suggest that schizophrenia may result in part when a certain gene that is key to making important brain chemicals malfunctions. This problem may affect the part of the brain involved in developing higher functioning skills” (Schizophrenia, 2009).
Discuss biological explanations for depression (24marks) One of the most popular explanations of depression is genetics; this theory states that genes are to blame for the presence of depression. It also argues that depression, like many other illnesses, is an inherited one which runs in families. McGuffin et al (1996) conducted research on concordance rates using 177 identical and fraternal twins. They found that the concordance rate was 46% for identical twins, but only 20% for fraternal twins; these findings are significant as the concordance rate for identical twins is over double of that for fraternal twins. These findings support the biological explanation as it suggests that depression has a genetic factor.
Studies of families researched by Weissman found that those with a first degree relative suffering depression, are ten times more likely to develop depression themselves, suggesting such illness could ‘run in the family’ or have a genetic cause. However a behavioural approach would refute this idea and suggest that this is due to a shared environment of the family, who also share the same life events which could trigger the depression. Furthermore, they may suggest
Speed may face having the disease and the impact Alzheimer’s has on society and its resources. Alzheimer’s is a disease that effects the central nervous system. According the livestrong.com, the loss of functioning brain tissue that occurs with Alzheimer disease initially causes problems with memory and learning. Personality, intellectual function and mood are greatly affected as the disease progresses. As Mr.
Outline and Evaluate the Neural Explanation of Aggression. The Neural Explanation of aggression states that aggression is caused by factors in the brain, such as decreased serotonin levels, increased testosterone, or brain damage, specifically to the frontal lobe. Kim (2002) studied patients with decreased ability to control aggression after a stroke, and found that they showed significant frontal lobe damage. This appears to suggest that people with frontal lobe damage will have a decreased ability to control their aggression; however, this study was done against patients who had recently had a stroke, meaning there are many other areas of the brain affected and different factors to consider. It is always very difficult to isolate brain damage to a specific area of the brain.
ETIOLOGY According to Hedge (2008), the leading cause of strokes may be due to years of vascular disorders. Darley (1972) concurs and adds that persons incurring trauma and infections are likely to recover from aphasia at different rates. In addition, the neuropathology of aphasia is damage to the language structures, by way of lesions on the frontal, temporal, and/or parietal lobes located on the left hemisphere of the brain. Lesions are found in Wernicke’s area of the brain and result in aphasia which is disclosed by comprehension
Therefore emphasising the link between genes and addiction. Further support comes from Blum et al who found a high prevalence of the A1 variant in children born to alcoholics. this suggests that some people may be more vulnerable to addiction than others as they inherit a genetic predisposition. In addition the evidence helps further explain why some some people become addicted and other who share the same characteristic do not. However, research findings within the area of genetics and addiction are inconsistent.