It also shows some other possible objectives for the firm. Sales revenue maximisation, for example, occurs when marginal revenue is equal to zero, as the next unit produced would carry a negative marginal revenue and hence reduce total revenue. The point where the volume of sales of the good are maximised subject to making at least normal profit is also shown (at the point where AR=AC). An Diagram Possible objectives of the firm I Profit maximisation may become
The cost of capital for average-risk projects would be the firm’s cost of capital, 10%. A somewhat higher cost would be used for more risky projects, and a lower cost would be used for less risky ones. For example, we might use 12% for more risky projects and 9% for less risky projects. These choices are arbitrary. 13- Sapp Trucking’s balance sheet shows a total of noncallable $45 million long-term debt with a coupon rate of 7.00% and a yield to maturity of 6.00%.
I would make an investment in the company’s 5% convertible bonds. Sepracor’s ROA and ROE is above the average and showing that it is profitable; however, the company’s debt to asset ratio is above 1, which means that most of its assets are financed through debt instead of equity. Sepracor would be in trouble if its creditors were to start demanding repayment. C.) To make valid comparisons between Sepracor and Bayer, you would have to compare the rules for fair value under the U.S GAAP and iGAAP. Under IFRS, convertible bonds are separately recorded as liabilities and stockholder’s equities.
If the cash is higher than the net income, the company’s net income is of high quality. If the cash is lower than the net income, the company’s net income is not turning into cash and a red flag should go up. Having more cash than the net income can mean shareholders will receive an increase in dividends can reduce debt, buy back stocks, or purchase another company. According to, the cash flow statement Home Depot, Incorporated is similar to fiscal year 2007. In fiscal year 2008, Home Depot Incorporated generated $5.5 billion of cash flow from operations and used $2.0 billion to repay short-term debt and other obligations plus $1.8 billion for capital expenditures and $1.5 billion in dividends.
This falls in the mid to lower quartiles for the industry. A lower current ratio could be an indication of liquidity issues. The quick ratio is a bit higher than the median for the industry. This is good, this means they do not have too much inventory around. The cash ratio is lower than the median.
Explain the difference in the required return estimates from the Value Line to the WSJ price data. The company’s return on common stock using the constant growth model is 7.72% Expected dividend yield = .60/27= 2.22% Cap. Gains Yield=5.5% The expected returns decreased from 8.36%to 7.72% which indicates the company is not as risky because the higher the risk the higher the return. B. What is the relationship between dividend yield and capital gains yield over time under constant growth assumptions?
When there is an x for y stock split then you should calculate returns as r_t=(〖x/y P〗_t-P_(t-1)+〖x/y D〗_t)/P_(t-1) For example, in the case of a 5 for 4 stock split x/y=1.25. 2. You do not have data on debt returns for the comparable companies. A common rule of thumb that is used in practice is to assume that the debt of these companies is risk free (has a beta of zero). This is a good assumption when debt represents a fairly small fraction of the firm’s value.
Total revenue equals price time’s quantity. It reflects total receipts obtained from selling a certain output or quantity of goods. Total costs is different it’s equal to fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs include building and equipment costs, regulatory fees and salaried personnel and remain stable, especially in the short term, but may vary with a longer time horizon. As the time horizon increases, variable costs rely less on existing factors and restrictions and therefore will begin behaving differently which will in turn affect the cost of production (Wright, 2007).
This is a sign of weakness. It should be noted that the percentage reduction is larger the percentage reduction in sales and cost of goods sold. OPERATING EXPENSES Selling Expenses Advertising was up from year 6 to year 7 by $8,940 or 37.5%. From year 7 to year 8 operating expenses were down $5,332 or -16.3%. This is weak and raises questions about why management would decrease advertising so much.
Financiering 6012B0217 Financiering Case 2012/2013 Vraag 1 a) Excel regression (ongecorrigeerde beta) equity beta van ING: 1.972874 ASML: 1,002967 Ahold: 0,395736 b) We know that there is a linear relationship between the stock beta and its expected return. So, if there is fewer stock the security market line will be steeper so, the beta will be smaller. Vraag 2 ßu = ßa= (E/(D+E)) x ße Net debt: Interest Bearing Debt – Cash and Cash Equivalents ING: 47284/(1234038+47284) x 1,972874 = 0,07280 Debt: 1247110-13072=1234038 ASML: 2773908/(1456616+2773908) x 1,002967 = 0,65763 Debt: 3406450-1949834=1456616 Ahold: 5910/(6215+5910) x 0,395736 = 0,192891 Debt: 8815-2600=6215 Vraag 3 a) ASML has a higher asset beta because it participates in an market which develops faster, so it has a higher systematic risk. Ahold has a lot of more diversity on his business. Ahold can better spread his risk.