As it determines the price of the product, and the price based on absorption costing does ensure that all costs are covered. Absorption can provide management with accurate information concerning product cost. The variable method is beneficial by providing an output that is closer to the cash flow of the company that may be short on cash flow. Variable costing aids in the analysis of cost-volume – profit by separating the variable and fixed in the income statement is another benefit. Which method would lead to the best decision when a competitor is submitting a lower bid for your product?
As the time horizon increases, variable costs rely less on existing factors and restrictions and therefore will begin behaving differently which will in turn affect the cost of production (Wright, 2007). The second way a firm that’s into profit maximization can decide its greatest level of output is by way of the marginal revenue -- marginal cost method. This is done by subtracting the marginal cost from the marginal revenue that a product generates. Using marginal cost and marginal revenue as the bases, profit maximization will be obtained at the point when marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost. If the marginal revenue is greater than marginal cost this would be when a profit maximizing firm would need to increase production until marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost.
If other things change, then one cannot directly apply supply/demand analysis. Sometimes supply and demand are interconnected, making it impossible to hold other things constant (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis, 2010). “In supply/demand analysis, you would look at the effect that fall would have on workers’ decisions to supply labor, and on business’s decision to hire workers. However, there are also other effects (Colander, The Limitation of Supply/Demand Analysis, 2010). “For instance, the fall in the wage lowers people’s income and thereby reduces demand.
“Discuss the extent to which a monopoly provider of transport will always increase economic efficiency” (20) Economic efficiency is where both allocative and productive efficiency occur, this is where price is equal to marginal cost and the least possible amount of scarce resources are used to produce the maximum output. A monopoly can refer to a single firm in a market or owning 25% and 40% of the market share. The traditional monopoly theory states that there will be productive and allocative inefficiency in the market since, the firm will hold back supply to gain a higher price. It will not produce where average revenue meets marginal costs. In terms of resource allocation this may mean that demand is not fully met by supply.
This is when the objective of the firm is achieving as high a total revenue as possible and occurs when marginal revenue is equal to zero, as shown on the graph. Another objective of a firm may be profit satisficing, where a firm makes a reasonable level of profit that satisfies its stakeholders without maximising profit. Examples of this in the leisure market may include businesses that have only just set up, as they perhaps do not have the work force to maximise profits yet and instead settle for a satisfying level of profit. The final objective of a business may be utility maximisation. Utility maximisation is the aim of trying to achieve as much satisfaction as possible.
When / if MR is higher than MC then MP would result in a profit for Company A. However, if MC is higher than MR Company A, would experience a loss. Utilizing method the Total Revenue – Total cost method; TR-TC method which depends on P (profit) = Revenue - Cost. When utilizing this method the first step is to determine the results of this equation P=TR-TC. Based on the given scenario for Company A and with utilizing the given data table.
Monopoly is where only one company is providing a good and or service. Businesses may maximize profit in each market type by agreeing upon a lay down price. Perhaps businesses cannot agree upon a set price then the price is going to be above marginal cost. If the company is in competition with other companies in the same market, making decisions about prices, how they advertise, output, etc, can influence the profits of every, if not all companies in the same market. This is where management gets involved to ensure the company that their strategic way of thinking and planning can and will allow the company to gain
To stay profitable, sellers must receive minimum prices that “cover” their marginal costs (McConnell et al., 2009). If selling a particular service generates more revenue than what it costs then sell it, if not then don’t. Pricing and Non-Pricing Strategies Pricing strategy is how a business depends on how to maximize profits. According to (McConnell et al., 2009) not all sellers must create or accept a “one-for-all” price. Most firms have “market power” or “pricing power” that allows them to set their services prices in their best interests.
If the IRR is less than the WACC, the project should be rejected, as it impoverishes the firm’s owners. If the IRR equals the WACC, it earns only normal profits (i.e., the owners’ opportunity costs) and accepting it is a matter of indifference. In this care the project’s IRR is 18.031 > 11.88%, therefore the IRR rule tells us the same as the NPV rule: this project will enrich the firm’s owners. We note in passing that in more advanced courses in finance you would learn about projects for which this rule cannot be used. Broadly speaking, they are projects whose cash flows changes sign more than once—e.g., from negative to positive to negative again.
A rising ROE suggests that a company is increasing its ability to generate profit without needing as much capital. It also indicates how well a company's management is deploying the shareholders' capital. In other words, the higher the ROE the better. Falling ROE is usually a problem. CAGR: Operating income, % Operating income (EBIT) measures a company's earning power from ongoing operations and it largely used by investor because it excludes the effects of different capital structures and tax rates used in different companies.