The firn line of a glacier moving up the valley signifies that the glacier is retreating, and even though this may take place, it will still move forward down a valley. This retreat occurs when a glacier has a negative mass balance, which is where its outputs, such as sublimation, calving, blow-off, are greater than its inputs such as snowfall and avalanches. Short run seasonal fluctuations such as a decrease in snowfall would ring about a decrease in the level of accumulation and an increase in temperature would lead to an increase in ablation, as the higher temperature would facilitate the melting of the ice. These changes are likely to occur in the summer months and may result in inputs falling and outputs increasing, leading to a negative budget. This would cause the firn line along with the glacier to retreat.
One fluvial landform of erosion that is created along the river is river cliffs. River cliffs are created due to the fluvial erosion processes. This includes hydraulic action as it acts against the river banks creating a river cliff on the outside of the river bend. As the river is at its fastest on the outside of the bend, the force of the water erodes the banks of the river. Furthermore, river cliffs are also created due to the rock type.
How do channel charectistic ( such as cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, roughness and efficiency) change downstream. Describe and explain how channel characteristic change downstream? As a river flows downstream there some significant changes to the channel, which include changes to the cross profile, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, roughness and efficiency. A cross profile of a river is cross section of the river, this is constantly changing. In the upper course, which is on high land, we see features such as the V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges forming.
-Areas near the sea are cooler in the summer because the sea takes a long time to heat up and so cools the land down. -The West of the UK gets warmer more than the east because of a warm ocean current coming from the South West called the North Atlantic drift. 4) PRESSURE: -Low-pressure weather systems have lots of rainfall because the air is rising and water vapour is condensing. High-pressure systems have dry weather because the air is falling. -Low pressure weather systems come from the west, so the west of the UK is wetter.
In the western Pacific, there is low air pressure as warn, moist air rises, cools and condenses, forming rain clouds which give heavy convectional rainfall. This movement of air results from the Walker cell. This circulation of air is where air in the upper atmosphere moves from west to east and surface air moves from east to west, as the trade winds. It causes surface waters in the west to be pushed upwards therefore sea levels in places such as the Philippines is 60cm higher than in Panama or Colombia. Water flowing westwards is warm, 28ºC in the western Pacific whereas the water off the coast of South America is cold, 20ºC.
Biomes and Climate Change by vburnin The biome I researched is the arctic tundra 1. Climate change has had several impacts on the abiotic factors of the arctic tundra. One of these factors is the length of the seasons, winters begin late and springs come earlier. It has been observed that changing world temperatures effect colder places the most. Rising temperatures in the arctic tundra have led more permafrost and snow to melt than usual causing the tundra to be converted to wetlands.
This isolation may be due to human practices or natural occurrences which drive aggradation or in‐stream incision. When high flows occur under these physical conditions, the stream or river has a restricted area to flow and higher flow velocities and energies are produced. Ideally, during high flows the river system would be able to over top its banks and spread over a large flat area surrounding the river, the floodplain (Figure 1). Floodplain reconnection reestablishes the connection between the stream system and its floodplain. This is accomplished through lowering or setting back natural or constructed levees currently blocking the flow of water out of the main channel.
Climate Change Expected Impact on Great Plains The Great Plains, spanning from Canada to Mexico, has a varied climate across the region. Northern portions experience bitter cold winters, southern portions experience scorching summers, western portions are semi-arid, and eastern portions are much more dry. With populations increasing in the Great Plains, the region becomes much more susceptible to impacts of climate change. Due to climate change water resources, agriculture, population, and ecosystems will all be impacted in the Great Plains region. * Impacts on Water Resources The Great Plains’ water is provided by the Ogallala aquifer, supplying more than 80% of drinking and irrigation water.
Certain other forces, like change in the Colorado River course, volcanism, continental drift, and the Earth's orbit. The formation of the Grand Canyon, the area was believed to be occupied by a chain of mountain ranges. These mountains, after a span of millions of years, had become plain due to erosion activities of water, ice, and wind. Meanwhile, due to the sudden climatic changes, the oceans moved over these areas and deposited rock layers. This process was repeated, resulting in the deposition of several rock layers.
The Forces that Change the Face of Earth Despite our tendency to consider Earth as static, it is actually a dynamic and ever-changing planet. Wind, water, and ice erode and shape the land. Volcanic activity and earthquakes alter the landscape in a dramatic and often violent manner. And on a much longer timescale, the movement of earth’s plates slowly reconfigures oceans and continents. Each one of these processes plays a role in the Arctic and Antarctica.