So in terms of operant conditioning, the relationship is being positively reinforced because it's rewarding and hence the behaviour involved from both sides is likely to be repeated. Both needs and rewards need to be fulfilled for a relationship to work and this should be throughout as you need to satisfy your partner's needs in order to get your rewards (mutual affection), which in essence is what keeps the relationship going if there is a balance. They also conclude that we like people we associate with pleasurable feelings which is a form of classical conditioning as if we meet someone when we are in a positive mood we are more likely to like them than if we meet them when we are in a negative mood. Moreover, there is physiological evidence to support the roles of rewards in the formation of relationships. Aaron et al found those who scored high on a self report questionnaire of romantic love showed strong activity in
Attribution is especially helpful in attaining the goals in learning because success that is explained by their belief about the learning experience can motivate further learning endeavors, however it can also be detrimental if the learning experience is not what was expected. Goal of Learning The goal of learning in both motivation and attribution is to successfully navigate a learning experience. With attribution, effort plays a part in the goal as it pertains to how the individual perceives the reason learning occurred. Motivation helps to bring them to the place of learning. How one perceives the events and situations around them and within themselves will greatly impact learning.
The family gives children a stable environment that they are able to learn and grow from. This benefits the society as children are not growing up to be horrible, and to treat others poorly, but have learnt what is wrong and right now knowing how to behave. Sexual functions can be viewed as helpful to society as it also like the educational function teaches normalities, for example the normality here would be what age it is acceptable for sex, and when it is acceptable. Finally when looking at the Economic function, it is seen to
The more challenge, the greater the sense of achievement. When others have achieved the same thing, status is reduced and greater goals are sought. Hedonism Hedonists simply enjoy themselves. They seek pleasure above all things and may, according to the view of others, sink into debauchery. Stimulation The need for stimulation is close to hedonism, though the goal is slightly different.
Social Exchange Theory is a theory based on the exchange of rewards and costs to measure the values outcomes from different situations for an individual. People strive to minimize costs and maximize rewards and then base the likeliness of developing a relationship with someone on the perceived possible outcomes. When these outcomes are perceived to be greater, we disclose more and develop a closer relationship with that person. This is a humanistic theory because it has intrusive reliability. When you really think about your daily interactions with those closest to you, and think back to how they have evolved; this theory makes logical sense.
Describe and evaluate two theories of the formation of relationships. (24 marks) One theory of the formation of relationships was proposed by Byrne, Clore and Smeaton, they believed that similarity amongst two people breeds liking and therefore led to a successful relationship. They stated that potential partners avoid those who whose personalities are different from their own thus leading to a second stage where we choose someone who is similar to ourselves in terms of personality and attitudes. This is important because if two people are similar to one another there is less likelihood of rejection and secondly if we share the same beliefs and attitudes – it is rewarding to each other. Burgess and Walkin support this theory as they found from 1000 engaged couples, that there was a significant similarity within personality characteristics suggesting that similarity is an important factor in a successful relationship.
Self-esteem is an individual’s awareness of him/herself and can be a means by which individuals are motivated to take action. People who view themselves in a positive light tend to exhibit better communication, connecting and dealing with others more effectively . This means that individuals with high self-esteem are likely to have higher emotional intelligence and a greater Interpersonal communication satisfaction. Thus a possible way of increasing emotional intelligence would be to deal with an individual’s low self-esteem and working ways to improve their self-image.
Pro-social behaviour: selfish or selfless? Discuss with reference to social psychology research. ‘’Pro-social behaviour is a broad category of acts that are valued positively by society- in contrast with antisocial behaviour. Being pro-social includes being both being helpful and altruistic. It also embraces acts of charity, cooperation, friendship, rescue, sacrifice, sharing, sympathy and trust.
These rewards could mean promotions, recognition, or bonuses (Robbins & Judge, 2009). Sometimes needing that positive encouragement and recognition can drive one to go along with the rest of the group. Maybe they do not get enough praise and they think that they finally deserve it, so they will agree to the issue at hand. When it
Motivation may be said to be rooted in a basic impulse to maximize well-being, minimize the physical pain and maximize pleasure. This can also emanate from specific physical needs and wants such as eating, sleeping or resting. Motivation is the inner drive to behave and act in a certain manner. These inner conditions for example wishes, desires and goals, activate the movement in a particular direction in behaviour. The most common method to impart motivation is by giving Rewards.