Because of this, anhydrous sodium sulfate is used to remove the water from the solution. Aqueous sodium bicarbonate is used to neutralize the acid, resulting in the racemic mixture of methylcyclohexenes. To ensure that this process is successful one can administer unsaturation tests to determine if double bonds were formed. Compounds containing double bonds react with a red bromine solution and decolorize it. A similar reaction occurs when adding potassium permanganate, with an added brown precipitate forming.
Therefore, acetic acid was used for this experiment. It reacted with the sodium hypochlorite to give hypochlorous acid, which thenreacted with the oxygen of the alcohol. Steam distillation was used to isolated product, and then was extracted into the distillate with ether with the addition of dying agent calcium chloride. Finally, the ether was removed to get the product, cyclohexanone with the "salting out" process. The process of salting out was used to separate cyclohexanone from the aqueous solution to purify the product.
Raoult’s Law was used in this experiment because it describes the vapor pressure that takes place in the experiment. The law states “The vapor pressure of a solution of a non-volatile solute is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at that temperature multiplied by its mole fraction.” (Clark) This means that the vapor pressure of a solution depends on the vapor pressure of the solutes making up the solvent. Dalton’s Law says that the total vapor pressure of a solution is equal to all of the individual vapor pressures that make up the solution. (Blauch) This law was also used in the lab due to the binary mixture of cyclohexane and toluene. Experimental Section – * Setup fractional distillation equipment * Gathered 7mLof stock mixture * Added four boiling stones
Formula of a Hydrate Objective The objective of the experiment is to determine the percent composition of water in a hydrate and to determine the hydrate’s empirical formula. Theory/Background In this experiment, the main purpose was to identify the percent water in a hydrate and to determine the empirical formula of the hydrate. A hydrate is a chemical compound containing water (H2O). After finding the masses of every part in the compound, one would be able to solve for the complete formula of the hydrate. An anhydrous salt is a salt without the presence of water or any moisture.
Then by filtering, iodide can be extracted which when combined with other substances can make an iodine tincture, that is a pharmaceutical product. * Can a single substance be isolated from a mixture? Yes a single substance can be isolated from the seaweed mixture by using methods such as filtration and evaporation. In our experiment we used filtration using a filter paper funnel to extract the iodide from the tincture. * What is this substance This substance is iodide Confidence Report The aim of extraction, is to separate a part of raw material, using a solvent such as water with heat.
Magnesium sulfate was used to absorb water and simple filtration was used to remove magnesium sulfate. Rotary evaporator with a steam bath was designed to remove the solvent. Finally gas chromatography was used to identify the purity of the limonene. 2. Mechanism 3.
The solution with the precipitate was divided in to two tubes and centrifuged. The formed precipitate was left behind after washing the liquid out. Then we added another 5 mL and centrifuged again and washed the tube again. Eventually when got our Zinc Hydroxide in the test tubes. We then performed the two tests: Acid and base.
Because this reaction is reversible, a fractional distillation is necessary to produce cyclohexene, water, and some impurities and a simple distillation is followed to further purify the product. [pic] (Fig. 1- Cyclohexanol dehydrated by sulfuric acid to produce cyclohexene) Procedure: 1. Mix five mL of Cyclohexanol and 2.5 mL of 9M sulfuric acid in a 25 mL flask. 2.
One method for preparing baking soda is through reacting crystalline ammonium hydrogen carbonate with brine according to the following equation: NH4HCO3(s) + NaCl (aq) --> NaHCO3(aq) +NH4Cl(aq) Eq. 1 Brine contains sodium chloride, the compound needed to make baking soda, as well as potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and calcium chloride. Once the reaction has been completed, the solid baking soda is filtered off, but some contaminants may be present in the solid. The first step in determining the purity of the sample is to perform thermal gravimetric analysis (Experiment 7) on the baking soda sample to determine the percent composition of sodium bicarbonate in the sample. A sample of the baking soda will be heated until it decomposes to leave solid sodium carbonate according to the following equation: 2NaHCO3(s) --> Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) Eq.
(°C) | Density (g/mL) | Cyclohexanol | 100.16 | 3.84 | 0.0383 | 161 | 23 | 0.96 | Phosphoric acid | 97.995 | 1.685 | 0.0172 | 158 | 42.35 | 1.685 | Cyclohexene | 82.143 | 1.340 | 0.0163 | 82.98 | -103.5 | 0.811 | Procedure: First, obtain 4mL of cyclohexanol in 25mL round bottomed flask and add 1.0 mL of 85% phosphoric acid with the two boiling chips. Mix the content thoroughly by swirling before connection