This is a neutralization reaction between a strong acid and strong base. Therefore the heat of reaction (∆H2) is called as the heat of neutralization of HCl and NaOH solutions. The ∆H2 calculated from this experiment is -6.6944KJ/mol. This is because the enthalpy changes when one mole of H+ ions from an acid (HCl) reacts with one mole of OH- from an alkali (NaOH) to form one mole of water molecules under the stated conditions of the experiment. In the final reaction of the experiment (Part C), solid NaOH will react with an aqueous solution of HCl.
When potassium nitrate is placed in water the slightly positive hydrogen’s in the water molecule are attracted to the nitrate ions and the potassium ions are attracted to the slightly negative oxygen. Figure 1 shows how sodium chloride would bond when placed in water. Figure 1 Sodium chloride dissolved in water (Adams, R. et al, 2011) The solubility of a solute in a solvent is affected largely by the temperature. A solubility curve (as seen in Figure 2)
McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.) Although sulfuric acid served as the acid in the reaction, it is also the catalyst in the over-all reaction. Water, attached to N, is good leaving group so it is eliminated to form the nitronium ion. The ppt was further recrystallized and purified. It was first dissolved in hot dH2O and then hot gravity filtration was performed. Many insoluble substances were isolated and cream in color.
The normality of the unknown base is calculated after the solution has reached the end point. The amount of substance being delivered is calculated in units of equivalents per litre using the formula: VaNa = VbNb Experimental In order to titrate the acid with the unknown base, a solution of the acid was prepared. 5.1722 (±10%)g of potassium hydrogen phthalate acid is obtained using a weighing boat and transferred into a volumetric flask containing 250mL of boiled distilled water. Volumetric flask was shaken several times in order to assist the powder to dissolve. Once dissolved, 24.9734 (± 0.0045)mL of acid was pipetted into an Erlenmeyer flask along with 25mL of cool (recently boiled) distilled water.
Mix the elements with cyclohexane, observe the color of solution, and record it. 5. Record the relative solubility of the elements in either cyclohexane or water. Experiment 2- Displacement reactions of halogens 1. Mix either chlorine solution, bromine solution or iodine solution with either potassium chloride solution, potassium bromide solution or potassium iodide solution.
Due to this, the reaction takes place in acidic conditions by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to the solution. The sulfuric acid protonates the alcohol group in triphenylmethanol. The ether is formed when the carbocation reacts with methanol to form trityl methyl ether. H3O + + CH3OH Triphenylmethanol Trityl Methyl Ether Procedure: Approximately 0.1g of triphenylmethanol crystals was placed into a reaction tube and grinded to fine powder with a glass rod. 1ml of concentrated H2SO4 was then added to the tube and the solution was continuously stirred to dissolve all the triphenylmethanol.
Preparing Isopentyl Acetate by the Fischer Esterification Preparing Isopentyl Acetate by the Fischer Esterification Leah Monroe May 8, 2003 Organic Chemistry Lab II Experiment performed on April 29 and May 1, 2003 Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize isopentyl acetate via an esterification reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol, using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The product was washed with sodium hydrogen carbonate, as well as with water, then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. The product was then distilled using a Hickman still and characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The percent yield of isopentyl acetate was 61.52%. This may have been low due to not all of the condensed product being removed from the Hickman still, some product being lost during transfer of the product from the reaction tube into the Hickman still, or the loss of some product due to evaporation during distillation.
Is There a Change in Temperature when an Alkali Neutralizes an Acid? Aim The aim of the experiment was to find out if there was a change in temperature when we added an alkali (Sodium Hydroxide) to an acid (Hydrochloric Acid) to neutralize it. Hypothesis We hypothesized that there was going be a raise in temperature as we add 1ml of Sodium Hydroxide at a time to the Hydrochloric Acid due to the neutralization of the acid. The neutralization is chemical reaction that causes an exothermic reaction. Sodium Hydroxide + Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Chloride + Water NaOH(aq) + HClaq → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Variables Independent The independent variable of the experiment was the amount of sodium hydroxide that we added to the acid.
Then, sodium hydroxide would have to be titrated against the potassium hydrogen phthalate to standardize sodium hydroxide to 0.1M as well. Titration is the procedure used to determine the concentration of some substance by the controlled addition of a solution into a reaction vessel (flask) from a burette. By using titration, the volume of the solution delivered from the burette may be determined very precisely. This reliable primary standard solution became useful as a titration was made against the orange juice to find the molarity of the citric acid. The indicator Phenolphthalein was the substance used to signal when the titration reached the point at which the reactants are stoichiometrically equal as defined by the balance reaction equation.
Zinc Chloride acts as the catalyst in the reaction. In some condition, heat supply is needed in the reaction. Alkyl halide can be prepared from alcohol by reacting them with a hydrogen halide, HX (X=Cl,Br, or I). The mechanism of acid catalyzed substitution of alcohols are termed SN1 and SN2, where “S” stands for substitution while sub-“N” stands for nucleophilic, and the number “1” and “2” is described as first order and second order respectively. The “1” or “2” is also represent the reaction is unimolecular or bimolecular reaction.