In the South however, the blacks were disfranchised, since the state governments introduced literacy tests, tests on the knowledge of constitution and Poll taxes, which African Americans had trouble with, because of poor education and financial problems. Both created through discrimination and racism. Racial hatred groups such as the Ku Klux Klan still existed. They advertised violent treatment of African Americans, and often engaged in violent activities themselves. Blacks were often beaten or killed by members of such hate groups.
Two great leaders of the African American community in the late 19th and 20th century were Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. Both of these leaders highly advocated the fair representation of black people and wanted both white and black people to be equally integrated and seen as a whole. However both men had differing philosophies on ways to achieve this representation, with Booker T. Washington wanting interests of black people over time, while W.E.B. Du bois wanted swift change following education.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois were two of the strongest leaders of the black community and had very different strategies of dealing with the problems blacks faced during this time period. Booker T. Washington’s strategy for dealing with discrimination was one of self help and education. He believed that the best way of equality is earning it. If they started to rebel against the discrimination, it would only make the whites more determined to keep them oppressed.
On the other hand, Malcolm X came from and underprivileged home an atmosphere of fear and anger where the seeds of bitterness were planted. The early backgrounds of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King were largely responsible for the distinct different responses to American racism. Both men ultimately became towering icons of contemporary African-American culture and had a great influence on black Americans. However, King had a more positive attitude than Malcolm X, believing that through peaceful demonstrations and arguments, blacks will be able to someday achieve full equality with whites. Malcolm X’s despair about life was reflected in his angry, pessimistic belief that equality is impossible because whites have no moral conscience King basically adopted on an integrated philosophy, whereby he felt that blacks and whites should be united and live together in peace.
The introduction of the Black Panthers, which dominated a vast section of the Black Power movement, could arguably be accused of hindering the civil rights movement. They produced much negative influence in their more violent methods. Their intense emphasis on separatism, self defence and Black Nationalism could have debatably caused further racial tension due to its polarising effect of the black and white communities. This could be seen as a regression of the movement and although it is what the Black Powers wanted it did not have the desired effects. The Black Panthers were also consistently accused of encouraging a gang mentally across America.
Franklin Roosevelt’s appointment as president of the United States of America, and the implementation of his New Deal, saw a significant improvement from the grim depression that began in 1929. However, in terms of improving the situation of black civil rights, Roosevelt could only push the issue to a certain extent. The Great Depression plunged the USA into a huge economic and social crisis. The fall in production of goods and services led to a huge rise in unemployment, which were noteworthy factors that affected minority groups. It is not surprising that, in these circumstances, African Americans were the most adversely affected in the competition for jobs, with about 50% being unemployed only in the South.
Washington favors the humble, ask nicely, appreciate what you’re given, and say thank you approach to obtaining social equality. Washington addresses the issue with caution, in doing so he not only comes across as an advocate of Blacks gaining “all privileges of the law”(Up from Slavery, 457), but also of Blacks being prepared “for the exercises of these privileges.”(457) By taking this approach Washington is gaining the appeal within the black community as well as the white community. In contrast to this effective stance, Du Bois asks constantly with a loud and firm voice. Du Bois even goes as far as to say that if the Black community wants social equality they must simply complain. “Ceaseless agitation”( The Souls of Black Folk 563 ) he feels will do more in the fight for equality than “voluntarily throwing away”(563) the reasonable rights they are entitled to.
During and after the Reconstruction, African Americans were completely betrayed by their own country. They were forced to live in total fear, apprehension and on the defensive. This country, corporately, reinstated white supremacy. This is evident with lynching, Jim Crow, segregation laws and the reintroduction of the Klu Klux Klan. Social changes and economic conditions also aided in the strained race relations.
DBQ 1989 During the late 1800’s, Blacks were facing many obstacles. Some of which were poverty, discrimination, and insufficient education, which in turn, led to illiteracy and therefore, a lack of jobs. Fortunately, this started to change from the period of 1877-1915 with the help of Black activists W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington. These leaders held very different opinions and strategies to deal with the problems the Black Americans were facing at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth.
This meant that the slave owners were starting to feel more nervous about their situation and also they had to make punishment against the blacks that spoke out more stringent so as to scare everyone else into line. This resulted in many aggressive acts between the black slaves and their white masters and there was loss on their farms and many of their crops would perish. This was an economic incentive to give up on slavery. However, the people of the south still made a lot of money from slavery and they were also proud and they did not want to give up on something that had been going on for generations. Another key element to the abolition of slavery was the U.S. Constitution and how it treated slavery differently in every state.