Humanities 1 Literature Review 1 In Chapter One, page 27, the text tells us about the Code of Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code, dating back to about 1772 B.C. The sixth Babylonian king, Hammurabi, enacted the code. Hammurabi, who feared the chief god of Babylon, was called upon to establish rule in the land. .
King Hammurabi was the first king of the Babylonian civilization of Mesopotamia. He reigned for forty-three years during the time of 1792-1750 BC. He was active in building, restoring temples, city walls, and public buildings along with building canals for irrigation and fighting wars. Throughout his reign his main concern was to assure Babylonia’s control over the Euphrates. Although he controlled all of Mesopotamia during the time he was known greatly for his code of law.
The Code of Hammurabi had several violations that warranted the death penalty. In our society today, these offenses seem minor and not deserving of such an extreme punishment. For example, if a person stole anything and did not pay for it or return the stolen merchandise, they would be put to death. Also, if a person built a house, and it collapsed and killed the owner who moved in, the builder would be put to death. The Law of Moses would put people to death for sins such as smiting or cursing their mother or father, and stealing a slave.
The law was well known for its "an eye for an eye" method. The laws were written in Rosetta stone so they could be preserved and passed on to future generations. The 282 laws are known as the first set of written laws. The Law of the Twelve Tables originated in Rome in 450B.C. The leaders separated the laws into sections so the people would have a better understanding of the law.
New specialized classes of citizens, the scribes, were in charge of keeping records on official matters such as taxation, crop management and historical events. Sumerians developed the first set of codified laws under the rule of the Babylonian king Hammurabi. These set of laws were focused on the punishment of certain crimes with different rigorousness depending on the nature of the violation itself. The laws of Hammurabi can be summarized by their famous quote, “an eye for an
It included many historically important city states, including Assyria to the north, Elam to the south-east and Babylonia towards the centre. Today, most of Mesopotamia lies in Iraq but parts can also be located in Kuwait, Syria, Turkey and Iran, with Babylonia’s capital city Babylon (whose name translates to Gate of the Gods) lying 94 kilometres southwest of Baghdad. Babylonia, and particularly Babylon, soon rose quickly in power and status thanks to the early reign of a ruler known as Hammurabi. The sixth king of the first dynasty of Babylon forged coalitions between the separate city-states of Mesopotamia, and promoted science and scholarship. Hammurabi made Babylonia into an empire and the society was thriving - he also created the earliest written set of laws called The Code of Hammurabi.
The Sumerians were the first to develop writing around 5,000 BC. This type of was called cuneiform. This form of writing was formed from the Sumerians by making pictographic carving on clay tablets using reeds with wedge-shaped tips. After the impression was made they heated the tablets until they were hardened. Years later in 1849 Archaeologist were excavating and discovered King Assurbanipal’s, Assyrian king, library of these clay tablets.
Hammurabi’s Code introduced the right to present a defense and placed the burden of evidence on the accuser. Many of the Code’s entries specified punishments for different crimes. It also covered family law and contained extensive trade and labor regulations, very similar to modern ones. The Code was engraved in cuneiform on giant stones, called steles; and also distributed on clay tablets, which were displayed in public throughout the Babylonian empire. A complete, and mostly intact, basalt stele of Hammurabi’s Code survives today, and is on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris, France.
He was the son of Nabopolassar, and lived from 604-562 B.C. As a military commander, he followed in the footsteps of his predecessors, conquering many Cities. He marched through Palestine and besieged Jerusalem twice. Nebuchadnezzar was also one of the most renowned builders in the Near East, making Babylon the most beautiful city in the region. Around his city, he built walls, which formed a square.
The Sumerians who were the first people who built the earliest civilization of Mesopotamia, the language was the first human tongue to have been expressed into writing. The Sumerian writing where created to record economic resources account of a temple as a temple scribe. The writing was holly and difficult, that only certain chosen people can learn cuneiform and help temple to record. Cuneiform came from the Latin word cuneus, wedge. During the Mesopotamia period, people learnt to record events and important message on solid objects such as walls, clay tablets, and etc.