Bonding Formal Lab Introduction (with Background information): Any substance, whether it is a metal or nonmetal, people can determine it by seeing if it is shiny, soft, or reactive. Metals are shiny, reactive, and have high melting points, while nonmetals are soft, have low melting points and not very reactive, and that is how anyone can determine whether a substance is a metal or a nonmetal. Covalent bonding is when two atoms share electrons, but it only occurs in two nonmetals only. They have low melting points and they are not soluble. Although, Ionic bonding is when an atom gives away elections to another atom, which only happens in a metal and a nonmetal, and they have high melting points and are soluble.
- signs of chemical change = changes the shape and color, creates a gas, distributes heat, Etc. - Chemical Change= Substance is formed into a completely new substance 2. Hypothesis: If the copper is being tested in these metals ( Copper, Magnesium and cupric chloride) then it would be the least reactive out of magnesium and zinc because it is the lowest among the three on the activity series. 3. Experimental Design: - Independent Variable: different types of metals: magnesium, zinc and Copper - Dependent Variable: amount of reactants observed for each metal - Control : The Air -Constants: The amount of chemical solutions, the time the metals were in the chemical solutions and size of each metal during the experiment 4.
Introduction Nucelophilic substitutions are chemical reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile attacks the electron poor electrophile1. There are two classes of nucelophilic reactions – SN1, and SN2. The SN1 reaction is a 2 step, uni-molecular reaction, which is independent of the nucleophile. It requires a highly substituted electrophile since there is a formation of a carbocation in its rate determining step, good polar protic solvents which stabilize the carbocation and a good leaving group1. On the other hand, a SN2 reaction is a concerted, bimolecular reaction which has one slow, transition state1.
B) permanent dipoles of molecules containing covalent bonds between atoms of very different electronegativities. C) the hydrophobic effect. D) ion pairing between oppositely charged functional groups. Answer: A Page Ref: Section 5 28) The aggregation of nonpolar molecules or groups in water is thermodynamically due to the A) increased entropy of the nonpolar molecules when they associate. B) decreased enthalpy of the system.
However, in covalent bonds, the intermolecular forces are very weak and easily broken, hence lesser heat is required and thus covalent bonds have lower melting and boiling points. http://www.diffen.com/difference/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bonds 1. Do ionic compounds conduct electricity as: (3 points) 1. Solids? No 2.
The half reactions for this system are: Oxidation of 〖Fe〗^(2+): 〖Fe〗^(2+)→ 〖Fe〗^(3+)+1e^- Reduction of 〖MnO〗_4^-: 〖MnO〗_4^-+8H_3 O^++5e^-→ 〖Mn〗^(2+)+12H_2 O Which produces the following overall equation: 〖MnO〗_4^-+8H_3 O^++5〖Fe〗^(2+)→5〖Fe〗^(3+)+〖Mn〗^(2+)+12H_2 O Equilibrium is initially obtained at a very slow rate, therefore the titration is carried out in the presence of excess sulphuric acid (H_2 〖SO〗_4) at a high temperature; in order to drastically increase the rate at which equilibrium is attained. Potassium permanganate acts as its own satisfactory indicator since the reagent 〖MnO〗_4^- anion appears to be an intense purple colour while the product 〖Mn〗^(2+) cation has a colourless appearance. However, the end point must be read quickly as the permanganate end point gradually fades due to the 〖MnO〗_4^- reacting with the 〖Mn〗^(2+) that was formed during the titration. When performing the titration, one must be cautious as side reactions can occur and these side reactions must be prevented using appropriate chemical measures. If an insufficient amount of acid was
The bond between these two ions is called an ionic bond.If the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.7 then the higher electronegative atom has an electron attracting ability which is large enough to force the transfer of electrons from the lesser electronegative atom. an example of an ionic bond would be Sodium chloride. Covalent Bonds have weaker inner forces this allows molecules to break easily, which is why covalent bonds have low melting points. Ionic bonds on the other hand have stronger inner forces keeping the molecules closer and stronger together. A result of this is a high melting point for that chemical bond.Ionic bonds tend to form more crystalline substances made of ions, like
Ethan D. Wilhelm September 10, 2012 Chemistry 121 section 8 Friday 9-12 Sarah Gains Unknown Substance Lab Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to identify an unknown substance B by finding enough of its physical properties that we could eliminate all substances it can’t be. We use micro lab to help us find the boiling point, freezing point and mass. Then we tested the solubility of the unknown substance in water, hexane, and Alcohol. With this information we were able to find the identity of the unknown substance B. Procedure: Throughout this lab we were finding the physical properties of substance B.
EINSTEIN'S INVENTIONS CHANGED SOCIETY. DISCUSS This essay is going to give a brief history of Albert Einstein, State his inventions and also state how they have changed the society. Who is Albert Einstein? Albert Einstein was born on the 14th of March 1879 at Ulm in Wurtemberg, Germany and died on the 18th of April 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey in the United States of America at the age of 76. Einstein was a physicist, He resided at many countries namely: Germany, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Hungary, and The United States of America.
Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe. Subatomic particles are the particles smaller than an atom. Although some subatomic particles have a greater mass than some atoms.